lusentoj: (汗)
[personal profile] lusentoj posting in [community profile] learning_japanese
Hey guys, I've started making a list of example sentences for JLPT grammar points, I'm pulling them from anime, manga, fanfic, chatrooms, Twitter etc. They're in no particular order aside from general JLPT level. As I find better examples I'll update this list, feel free to add your own!

[JP] = Japanese explanation (when I can think of one).

{word} = Where I've seen it used. Only for hard-to-find grammar points that even if you watch anime/read stuff you might not find easily.

EDIT: Note that nuance is COMPLETELY DIFFERENT between dialects, standard (Tokyo) Japanese and anime! Ex. in anime わし "I" is only used by old people, but in Hiroshima even kids use it. In anime おれ "I" is constantly used by men; but IRL it's rude or used by women. Anime "gangster-talk" was borrowed from dialectal movies, so ex. while in anime うるせー is the rude/gangster way to say うるさい, in many dialects it's just the normal way.

Last updated: 2017.08.16

—————— N1 ——————

If a piece of "grammar" doesn't exist on any JLPT study list, I'll add it to N1 no matter how common it is IRL. Ex. やがる won't appear on the JLPT because it's too rude, but you'll see it constantly in fiction so it's on this list.

あげる / 上げる : "finish", in the sense of "do the action so that we get the end result". same as our up in "write up that paper", "eat up the food", and arguably a few phrases like "shut up, hang up the phone, kick up a storm, whip something up" etc.
• 小説 書き あげた
 "small fable a write finished" = (i) wrote up a short story.
• 婆 さん は その 白い 箱 を 拾い 上げた
 "old-lady person that is-white box lift-take finished" = the old lady picked up that white box

極めて : super (exceedingly, really).
• 極めて 特異 な ケース だ
 "exceedingly special-strange case exists" = this is a super special/peculiar case (so all the info is classified)
• この 状態 で 飛び 込む など 愚 行 の 極み だ
 in this kind of situation (= dark, unknown place) jumping in and the like would be the pinnacle of foolish acts.

ごとき: "similar"
{insults in anime}
• 貴様 ごとき
 a bastard like you

なし : "nada". same exact word as ない(無い), just the archaic form that used to be used if it wasn't ending the sentence.
• こちら、特 に 変わった こと は なし だ‌
 "this-road, special-ly changed matter is nada exists" = there's nothing strange here. (変わった is a phrase meaning "strange")

のみ: =だけ (formal/dialectal). "only (if/on)".
{explanations: train tickets, usage instructions}
• ご 乗車 日 のみ 有効 です
 "(your) ride-wheel day only (on) have-effect situation exists" = (this ticket) is only good for the day you're actually riding the train.
• こいつ は 狙った 相手 の サイコ パス を 読み 取る 銃 だ‌。相手 が 潜在 犯 だった 場合 のみ セーフティー が 解除 される‌。
 "this thing(/person) is a gun (that) takes (and) reads the other person (that you've) aimed at's Psycho Pass. Only if the other person (has) crime-commit potential becomes cancelled the safety." = only if your target's mentally unwell enough to commit crimes will the gun's safety unlock and you'll be able to shoot them.

ぶち、ぶっ / 打ち: adds emphasis to an action. Literally means "hit" but is kinda like our "totally, fucking". whether it's ぶち or ぶっ seems to be up to the person and not the sound that comes after, as I've seen both ぶっ殺せ and ぶち殺す for example (ぶっ seems more forceful).
• ぶっ殺せ!
 fucking/totally kill (him)!
• 気 に 入らねえ やつ は ぶち 殺す‌
 "guys/things (I) don't like, (I)'ll fucking kill (them)". 気 に 入る "become in (a good) mood" is a phrase meaning "to like/have an interest in something".
• 予 想 どおり ノート pc は ぶっ 壊れた
 "pre-imagine road, note PC was hit (and) became-broken" = just as i thought (before checking to make sure), my notebook PC's totally busted

付け、付き: 付ける
• 歌 詞 付き 動画
 song with lyrics attached (= subtitled)
• 昨日 付け で 刑事課 に 配属 に なり まし た。 常 守 朱 です‌
• だから…貴様 が どこ に も 逃げ 出せない よう‌ この 工場 に 釘 付け に して やる‌

め / (目?) : "damn/fucking". general insult, i don't know how strong it is. haven't looked up where it comes from, maybe something like 悪魔の目 "demon's eye" (= demon's helper) etc.
{insults in anime}
• この バカ め‌
 "this damned idiot!" = this fucking moron!
• くず め‌
 "damn trash!" = you piece of shit!

—————— N2 ——————

たえる / 耐える : endure ("stand something")
• 恥かしく て 恥かしく て たまらぬ こと
 being ashamed, being ashamed, an event/fact (i) can't stand = "a most burning shame".

こめる / 込める: "puts into" (forces to go into). origin: 込む "goes into".
• エロイカ より 愛 を こめて
 "Eroika out-of love (affected-with) puts in" = from Eroika with love.

ものの:= けど
{Hokkaido people}
• 低 気 圧 に なって よかった ものの 雨 降る か な
 "low air pressure-ly becoming good though rain falls huh being" = i'm glad the atmospheric pressure dropped but will it rain i wonder?
• そして いま あつい ( ̄▽ ̄;) 台風 消えて よかった ものの
 "that-doing now is-hot. typhoon disappearing was-good though" = and it's hot! i'm glad the typhoon went away though

つつ: "(even while) continuing to". Origin: つづける ("continues"). This seems to be a written-language word while ながら is the spoken language but don't quote me on that.
[JP] て、しながら、続、同時に
• お はよう ござい ます。今日 は 長 崎 を 思い つつ…
 good morning. today (i'll/we'll) continue to think about Nagasaki... (said on the anniversary of the atomic bombing).
• この 道 を 泣き つつ われ の 行きしこと、わが 忘れなば 誰 か 知るらむ

ぬく / 抜く : without. literal meaning is "pulls (something) out", as in for example removing your finger from a place you've stuck it into.
• 今晩 は 食事 抜き だ‌
 tonight is meal without exists" = tonight you'll go without dinner

たまえ / (給え): "please! (formal)", origin is 給う "supplies" so it's literally "supply (me with)!"
{anime: rich formal people, company bosses}
[JP] お願い、くれ
• 来 たまえ(き たまえ)
 please come!

ふう / 風 : "style, wind".
• 洋 風
 non-asian style (ex. music)
• 俺 の こと を そう いう ふう に 言って た の か
 "so (she) was talking about me in that kind of style, huh"

いちおう / 一応 : "for now", "roughly (= not completely or perfectly)", "somehow". originally was written as 一往 (= 一行 ) "one go/action/trip".
• データ は 古い です けど 一応 は…
 "data (is) is-old situationally-exists but for-now is..." = though the (map) data's old, it's what we'll have to use for now.

ぶり / 振り: first time (in x time period)
[JP]: ある 時間 に、初めて
• 久しぶり = 久しい ぶり "first time in a long time"
• 今日 は 10日 ぶり ぐれー に 学校 に 行って…
 "today (was the) first time (in) around 10 days that (i) went to school..."
• イン する の は 二年 ぶり です か ね…
 "becoming logged in (action), first time (in) 2 years exists huh..." = (this is) the first time in 2 years that I've logged in, huh.
• ◯◯が いきなり うち の 家 きて、 小学生 ぶり だ よ
 "for ◯◯ to suddenly come to our house, it's the first time since elementary school!"
• 10年 ぶり 雑誌 広告 に 復活。読み 切り 漫画 も
 "for the first time in 10 years, a revival in advertisement. (the ad's) even a manga you can read to the end!"

ふり / 振り: feign(ing)
• 知らぬ 振り を して 下さい。これ は うち の 問題 です。
 "feign that (you) don't know, please. this is our (insiders': not your!) problem."
• 他 の 人 々 が 襲われて いる の を 見て 見ぬ ふり
 "other diverse people's becoming attacked [situations] seeing not-see feign" = pretending to not see (all the) other people getting attacked

といい (といい) / と良い: "both". can be repeated but might not be.
[JP]: (こいつ)も (そいつ)も
• 「田舎」→「いなか」、「大和」→「やまと」の 読み は「熟字 訓」と いい
 "田舎, 大和's readings are both 'compound readings" = both "countryside" and "Japan" have special pronunciations that aren't in any way connected to the kanji themselves.

き, きぶん / 気, 気分: in the mood to.
[JP]: 気分 ("mood")
• やる 気
 "in the mood to do" = motivation
• 殺気
 "in the mood to murder" = intent to kill, bloodlust
• たま に 学校 行く 気 に なる
 "sometimes (i) become in the mood to go to school" = sometimes i feel like going to school
• あなた を 抱き 枕 に して 寝 たい 気分 だった の よ
 "doing you into a hug-pillow, want-to-sleep mood (i) was (in that situation)" = it's because I wanted to sleep and felt like turning you into a body-pillow.

上: based on (-wise)
[JP]: 立場 (から見ると)
• くそ っ 理論 上 は 完璧 な はず の に どうして…
 "shit! on theory it should've been perfect, why (didn't it work?)..." = theory-wise it should've worked so why didn't it!
• 「住民 は‌?」「登録 上 は 無人 区画 だ が‌ お かげ で 浮浪者 の 巣窟 だ‌」
 "(And) the (district) residents?" "on the (government) register (it's) a humanless district but thanks to that it's a den of drifting jobless people (= hobos)" = based on reading the register it's an empty distrct, but tons of homeless people are here.

ところを / 所を: situation-wise. this is clearly short for something (what word's missing after を?) but i haven't figured out what yet.
[JP] 場合で、のに
• 潜在 犯 と して 隔離 される べき ところ を‌…
 "(they) should've become isolated as potential crime(-doers) situation-wise..." = they should've been thrown into isolation because they could potentially commit crimes, but that's not the current situation.

— Note that ところへ and ところに mean "going TOWARDS situation-wise", as in "when I was just about to (get myself into that situation)" etc.

まい : not-probably
• まあ 抜く まで の ことに は なる まい よ‌
 well, not-probably becomes that as far as pulls out = well (things) probably won't get so bad that we have to go so far as to pull out (our guns)
• 答え は 知る まい
 the answer is not-probably knows = the answer's probably unknown

とも / 共 :
• この 夫婦 知って る!2 人 とも 目 が 見えて ないけど 上手 に 子 育て して る。
 "(i) know this husband-(and)-wife! both (of the) two have unseeing eyes but are child-raising skillfully" = i know this married couple! both of them are blind but they're doing a good job raising (their) kids.
• 一番 の 金持ち に なれ だ と、ああ なって やる とも‌
"become the richest! (he said), yeah i'll definitely do it (just you watch).
• よろしい です とも‌
• そう とも

かぎり / 限り : a thing being limited (="as long as"). origin: the verb 限る "to limit (something)".
• 私 は、お 前 達 全て の 人間 の 影 だ。人間 に 昏き 心 が ある 限り、私 は 消せん。
 i'm the shadow (= mirror, product) of all ye humans. as long as there's murkiness in human hearts, i won't disappear.
• 貴様 が ここ に 閉じ こもって る かぎり 犯罪 は 立証 できない‌
 as long as your mug's shut away in here you can't commit any crimes

える / 得る : can (do/be)
• 何者 に も 成り 得る 君
 you who can become anyone (else but can't be yourself)

—————— N3 ——————

かわる / 代わる: replaces. 代わりに "in replacement; as a replacement".
• 君 は この 後 僕 の 代わり を 見つけ られる の か‌
 "you, after this, will (the situation be that you) are able to find my replacement huh" = will you ever be able to find someone to replace me (in your heart), i wonder?

といい‌ : it'd be good (for you) to
[JP] すれば いい‌
• 今 あげた 銃 を 拾って 使う と いい‌
 it'd be good (for you) to use the gun (i) just gave (you, so you can shoot me properly)

— といい‌ といい‌ (same thing but doubled up in the sentence) means "both" and is an N1 grammar point instead.

ばかり: "just (happened)", "(doing) nothing but". origin: 計る "measures" changed to はかり "a measurement", then ばかり.
• この 町 に 来た ばかり の 友人 です‌
 a friend that's just arrived in this town.

として : as (a role)
[JP] と[役]して (?)
• 親 として 恥ずかしい‌
 as a parent (i'm) embarrassed (of you, my son!)

ほど / 程 : "the -er, the -er". short for "when the degree rises, the (x) also rises".
• 獲物 が 賢い ほど 狩り も 楽しく なる‌
 "prey's is-wise degree (rises when, the) hunt including becomes fun" = the wiser the prey, the funner the hunt

どおり (とおり) / 通り : (it's) just as. literally, "a (through-)road". i can't find any actual rule for when to say とおり versus どおり because i've seen both 言った どおり and 言った とおり.
• お 前 が さっき 俺 に 言った とおり だ‌
 "you a-bit-ago to i said road" = (it's) just as (what you) said to me a few minutes ago
• ここ まで は 予定 どおり‌
 "until here (was) pre-decided road" = until now it's been just as (we) predicted
• その とおり
 "that road" = exactly! (you're) completely correct
 
べき (べし, べい, べく) : should (do). べかる is べく "should-wise" ある "exists", べからず "is prohibited" (="you shouldn't do") is べかる in あず(=ん、ない、ぬ)form.
• すぐ に 応援 を 呼ぶ べき じゃ ない ん です か?
 "immediate-ly support calls should situationally-is -less situation situationally-exists huh?" = isn't this the kind of situation where we should immediately call for back-up?
• あんた は 見る べき じゃ ない もの を 見 過ぎ ちまってる‌‌
 "thou sees should without-exists things see(ing) too-much-screw-up" = you're unfortunately seeing way too many things you shouldn't be seeing (and these things will screw up your personality and give you PTSD).

おける : locationally (= in, at, on etc)
• つまり あの 場 に おける 判断 に 間違い は なかった と…(omou)
 you mean, (your) decision locationally that situation was without a mistake, (you think)

ゆういち / 唯一 : the only. note that this can also be a person's name.
• 完全 自動 化 された 生産 ライン の 中 で 唯一 の 有人 区画 だ‌
 among the completely automated production lines (this building's) the only one that has humans working in it

さえ : if only! 2. "even" regarding a huge thing
• お 前 ら さえ いな ければ
 "if only you guys weren't existing!" = if only you were dead (I'd be happy)!
• 自分 が やって いる こと が 何 な の か 顧みる こと さえ 忘れて いた‌
 i was even forgetting what in the world i was doing

のち / 後 : = 後で (あとで, formal). Same kanji, different pronunciation depending on formality.
• 今日 の 天気 は 曇り 後 晴れ‌。
 "today('s) weather is cloudy, later (on) sunny"

うちに / 内に: "within, inside" =while still
• お 昼 できた わ よ!冷めない 内 に 食べて
 "lunch's ready! (please) eat while it's still not cold!" = eat before it gets cold!

らしい、しい(じい, じ, らしき): "(is just) like". らしい is short for あら (ある, exists) しい (is-like) and is probably the original form, しい is used in old words like a set phrase. It's just like how our "like" turned into "-lic, -lish, -ly, -y" (angel-like —> angel-lik —> angelic; anger-lik —> angerli —> angerly; swede-like —> swed-ish).
• 神 々 しい
 "god (and) god is-just-like" = god-like (divine, heavenly)
• 珍 しい
 "strange is-like" = is strange.
• 同 じ
 "same (is)-like" = is the same. Used to be 同じい but the い fell off.
• 今日 女子 大[学校人]生 の 日 らしい
 seems like today's Female Uni-Student's Day
• どうやら 死んで しまった らしい
 "somehow just like (he's screwed up and) died" = it seems that he's dead
• どうやら 選択 の 余地 は ない らしい‌
 seems we've no choice
• あいつ らしい‌
 "just like (that guy/thing)" = that's just like him, that's just like how he'd act/talk
• お 前 らしい 答え だ な
 (that's) an answer just like you, isn't it = that's a you-typical answer.
• 私 の 姉 らしい エピソード
 i situation older-sister just like episode = my older sister-like episode/event in my life
• まだ 終わって い ない らしい な‌
 "still without-become-ended-state just like, huh" = seems like it still hasn't ended yet, huh
• せめて 渡る 橋 で も あれば と 辺り を 見 回す が、それ らしき もの は 見えない
 were there at least a crossing-bridge (he could) look around the area, but (he) can't see any such thing

なんて / 何て: (doing) stuff like
• あー!! また タバコ なんて 吸って 不良!! タバコ は 体 に 悪い の よ
 "ahh!! doing stuff like smoking tobacco again (you) delinquent!! tabacco's (a thing that's) bad for your body y'know!"

かとおもうと / かと思うと: just when (i) was thinking that...
• タバコ は 体 に 悪い の よ たま に 学校 来た か と 思う と すぐ 悪さ すんだ から!!
 "tabacco's (an action) bad for your body y'know!" just when (i) thought '(you do) come to school sometimes, huh' (you) immediately do bad stuff!!"

もん, もの / (物): 'cause (usually this is informal girl-speech, or childish talk). the kanji isn't used as far as i know. a lot of times they use it to show their excuse/reason for doing something seen as kinda shameful/bad/weird by another person.
• 「なに やって ん の よ コソコソ し ちゃって」「だってー 浦飯 くん コワイ ん だ もん」
 "what're you doing, completely sneaking around (like this)" "well it's 'cause Urameshi-kun's a scary (person)!"

きれる / 切れる: run out; all the way. origin is 切る "can you cut all the way through this?" = "can you cut/continue until it's ended?" —> "i cut it/continued all the way until the end"
• スタミナ 切れた!
 "(i've) run out of stamina!"
• この まま じゃ 死んで も 死 に きれねー ぜ
 "at this rate (he) won't die all the way even if he dies" (= he won't die even if you kill him)
• 「日ペンの美子ちゃん」10年ぶり雑誌広告に復活 読み切り漫画も

はない / は無い: is nonexistant/without
• キサマ の 様 な ヤツ は 学校 に くる 必要 は ない!!
 "(we're) without the need for a bastard guy like you to come to school!" = there's no need for a guy like you to come to school, we don't want you here!"
• 母 の よう に なり たく は ない だろう?
 "wantless to become way-wise (your) mom (I) surmise?" = you don't want to end up like your mom, do you? (context: the mom is a dead coward)
• 「なぜ…?!」「そんな こと 貴様 が 知る 必要 は ない」
 "why...?!" "a bastard (like you) doesn't need to know (that kind of thing)"

ため / (為) : a reason. the kanji IS in use but most of the time hiragana is used.
• やつ ら は 猟 犬‌。獣 を 狩る ため の 獣 だ‌。
 "those guys(/things) are hunt-dogs. hunts beasts reason beasts exists." = those guys are hunting dogs. they're beasts for hunting beasts."
• こちら は 公安局 刑事課 です‌。現在 この 区画 は 安全 の ため に 立ち 入り が 制限 されて い ます‌。
 "this is (a message from) the public safety department('s) crime event section. current(ly) this boundary-drawn (area) is total safety's reason-wise standing and entering has become suppressed (and) limited" = this district's restricted right now for the sake of (your) safety, so you can't enter.
• 沼 を 調べる ため に は 飛び 込む しか ない‌
 in order to investigate a swamp you've no choice but to jump in

っぽい : ethos (= gives off the air/mood of)
[JP] いっぱい みたいな
• 人 質 の 子 が 限界 っぽい っす よ‌
 "human-pawn child limit ethos exists" = the hostage kid gives off the feeling that they're at their limit

だらけ : covered in (something the speaker thinks is bad, no matter how society sees it)
• 傷 だらけ で も 待って る
 despite covered in wounds, (i'll) be waiting
• 「ばんわー、私 は 虫刺 され だらけ ーw」「そう いえば 私 は あざ だらけ ーw」
 "'night, I bug-bite-become covered in lol" "(if you) speak that-way I bruise covered in" = "'evening! I'm covered in bug-bites lol!" "now that you mention it, I'm covered in bruises lol"

まちがいない / 間違いない : "no doubt". origin is 間 "space/room" 違う "incorrect" (turning to 違い: an incorrect thing, a mistake) ない "is-without" = "there isn't room for doubt".
• 間 違い なく ワナ だ‌
 "incorrect-space-lessly a trap situationally-exists" = no doubt it's a trap

—————— N4, N5 ——————

あい、おい、いい —> えー (えぇ) : in manga this usually happens in informal or childish speech but my teachers say in general it's simply showing "the spoken language" (versus the written language).
• いい —> ええ "is good, yes"
• ない —> ねー "is without, -less, non-existing"
• こわい —> こうぇえ "is scary"
• うまい —> うめぇ "is tasty"
• うるさい —> うるせー "is noisy" = shaddap!!
• ぐらい —> ぐれー "around (this time/amount)"
• おもしろい —> おもしれー "is interesting, fun"

い —> ゆ: same as above.
• いく —> ゆく (in most dialects). "goes".
• どう いう —> どう ゆう "what way" (used to mean ex. "what do you mean, what are you saying?").

れは —> りゃ: same as above.
• あれ は —> ありゃ "that existance: that thing/person (is)".
• これ は —> こりゃ "this existance: this thing/person (is)".
 何 だ こりゃ! "what situation-wise exists (with) this existance!" = What's (the deal with) this?!

かどうか : か (doubt marker) and どう "which way, how"). the "way" refers to the two possible ways "true or not true" (= yes/no).
• これ で 金原 が 人 を 殺せる やつ か どう か はっきり する‌
 with this we'll see if he's the kinda guy who can kill a person

かも、かもしれない / かも知れない : "can't be known" (= maybe). literally か (marks doubt) も (including) 知れない (can't know). like with all phrases, it's usually not written in kanji.
• 関係 ある か も しれない
 "rilation exists huh including can't-know" = maybe there's a connection (to that thing you're working on)
• ハード じゃ なく て ソフト の 問題 かも…
 it's a software, not a hardware, problem maybe...

にくい / 憎い : "difficult (for me)". origin is the shortened form of 憎らしい "hate-worthy", and 憎む "hates (something)", but 憎い apparently means lesser hate than 憎らしい.
• 大事 な 話 が ある の。電話 や オンライン じゃ 話し にくい。
 "big-matter being a talk (noteworthy!) exists situation. electric-talk & online (& stuff) locationally is talk-hate." = (i've) got something important to talk to (you) about. it's too difficult (= sensitive) to talk about it over the internet or a phone call.

てくる / (て来る) : arrives, been (= come to be). its original meaning of simply "(action and) comes" can also be.
• この 世界 に 生まれて きた
 (i've) been born in this society
• 何 人 も の 潜在 犯 を 撃って きた‌
 i've been shooting countless latent criminals
• 急 に し たく なって きた
 "suddenly want-do become-arrived" = suddenly I want to do it now.
• お 前 から 電話 が かかって くる の は 悪い 兆候 だ‌
 "from-you phone call hanging-comes (situation) is bad sign exists" = a call from YOU is a bad sign

ていく / (て行く): "going to (do/be)".
• 裸 で 生まれ、裸 で 死んで いく ん です
 "(everyone's) born naked, (and are) going to die naked"

な: the command "(verb) not!". this is ONLY when after the う-form of an action-verb. when after an opinion-verb, noun or something else it has the "being" meaning below". when after a noun and し it's short for しなさい "please do", as in 安心 しな(さい) "please don't worry" (in other dialects な is ね: 安心 しね).
[JP] しないで(=命令)
• 動く な
 "move not!"

な: "being" (makes descriptions for stuff that can change or is according to opinion, versus stuff that's built-in). origin is possibly に あ(る) "in exist(ing)". If it comes after a word that's already a description, or comes at the end of a sentence, it sort of emphasizes that what was just said is the speaker/writer's opinion and thus it often suggests to the listener/reader that they should respond: "I think this, but what's the truth? What do you think?".
• 馬鹿 な 話 だ versus 馬鹿 の 話 だ
 "a foolish (in my opinion) story exists" = "it's a stupid story", versus "a story (restricted to) a fool exists" = "only an idiot would say that. you're stupid."
• 賢明 な 判断 だ
 "a wise decision." (= his opinion on her decision)
• 余計 な 事 を 言う な
 "say not outside-of-necessary things!" = don't say shit (that I think) will mess everything up!
• 面白い な
 "is interesting (to me personally)" = interesting, isn't it! (what do you think?)

— Note that your textbook/dictionary will probably say certain words are simply "always" used with な; it may call them "な-words" or something similar. This isn't really true, it's just for convenience's sake because words like "wise (choice), fun (topic)" are almost always someone's opinion.

な: don't (do it!)
[JP]: は ダメ
• いい か 危ねー から 道路 に 飛び 出す な よ
 "listen up. since it's dangerous, don't jump out into the road (where cars drive by)!"
• よし その まま 目 を 離す な‌
 "good, that same-state eyes part not!" = good, just keep at it and don't lose sight of (him)!

ね, の, のう: sentence-ending な, it's just that sound-changes occured according to dialect and sociolect. It also gives the feeling "I think this, but what's the truth?". のう is older and thus in anime is usually used by grandparents or people talking archaically. の is used most often in general.
• いつも 一人 で 大変 だ ねぇ
 "always being alone is hard (I think, but maybe you think differently?)". Note that "being alone" often just means ex. "working without help", not that you're literally alone 24/7.
• また 連絡 ください ね
 "again contact give me" = please contact me again (is how I feel, but maybe you don't want my services again)!. 連絡 is used for all kinds of contact, ex. visiting someone's house or phoning someone.
• すぐ ドア 開けます ね
 "the doors are about to open (I think this is noteworthy, but maybe you aren't even getting on the train)"
• ホーント あなた って お 洗濯 が 好き な の ね
 "reaally you have a liking for (doing) laundry (it seems to me, though I could be wrong)"

か : marks doubt. often easily translates to "huh".
• そっか(=informal of そう です か or さよう で ござい ます か
 "that way huh" = is that so. I see.
• できる か どう か 分からない
 "can be done huh, which way huh, (i) don't know" = can (i) do it or not? i don't know. "どう which way, how" refers to the two possible ways "yes or no".

かい: か but always marks a rhetorical question (usually? always?) to another person.
• できる かい?
 "can it be done, eh?" = can you do it? (I already know you can)
• 事件 かい
 "a case, eh?" = it's already obvious to me that it's a case, because you're answering your work phone that you reserve for "cases".
• 理不尽 だ と 思う かい‌
 "irrational exists' when (you) think, eh" = you're thinking it's crazy, eh? (i can already tell)
• 今日 も また 優雅 に 個室 で ランチ かい ?‌
 so today you're eating lunch in your solitary room again, eh?

かな: か ("marks doubt") and sentence-ender ね ("I think"). Meaning that the speaker/writer's wondering to themselves. This is also be used to more subtly ask for corrections "I wonder if this is right...?" (someone else butts in) "No it's not!!".
• 大丈夫 か な
 "(will this/it/they be) okay, I wonder...
• 私 の 考え 方 間 違って る か な?‌
 "my thought-way being-mistaken I wonder?" "is my way of thinking wrong, I wonder?"
• 「課長、本当 に ゲイ じゃ ない の か な?」「まあ、本人 が 違う って 言って る し…」
 "i'm wondering if the section chief 'really' isn't gay?" "well, (since) the person himself's been saying "(that's) incorrect!" = well, since he himself keeps claiming it's not true (= that he isn't gay)...

まで: until, "(up) to" as in "she's dressed (up) to the nines", "he's sunk (up) to his knees".
• うるせー オレ は 勝つ まで やる ぞ
 "noisyyy, until I win (I'll) do (it)!" = shuddap, i'll keep on doing it until i win!
• ワナ だ!ワナ まで アナクロ[ニズム] だ な‌
 "trap situationally-exists!" (*sees that it's a torture-chamber trap*) "trap until anachronism situationally-exists being" = it's a trap! (they're) anachronic up to their traps, huh. (anachronism = from the wrong/an archaic time period)

が: "noteworthy point, description". in ancient times this marked ownership (our 's in "dog's") and in some phrases, old names etc. it still clearly means that. at times it most easily translates to capslock or "is/was/were".
• わが 国 = 私 が 国
 "i (have/noteworthy) country" = my country
• 目 が 痛い
 "eye (have/noteworthy) is-pain" = (my) eyes hurt
• あれ が あんた の 判断 だった‌
 "THAT-EXISTANCE (noteworthy) thy decision existed" = THAT (screw-up I'm not explicitly mentioning) was your decision, not mine.
• あんた は 何 が 正しい か を 自分 で 判断 した
 "you 'WHAT (noteworthy) is correct, eh?' by yourself decided" = you decided what's correct by yourself (at the time).
• 自分 で 脱いだ ほう が よろしい で しょう か?それとも ◯◯さま が?
 "is the side of (ME) disrobing by MYSELF (noteworthy) good, (I) wonder? or is LORD ___'S (noteworthy side good)?" = is it better if I myself take my clothes off, or better if Lord ___ takes them off for me?".
• 敵 が 来る!
 "ENEMY (noteworthy) arrives!" = the enemy is coming. it's noteworthy that it's the "enemy" and not, say, your brother who's coming.
• 腹 が 減った
 "STOMACH (noteworthy) became-shrunk" = i'm hungry. I'm STARVING!
• 物 分かり が 早い わ ね
 "OBJECT-UNDERSTANDING (noteworthy) fast, eh" = (you're) sure quick to catch on, aren'cha. (most likely this line is sarcasm)
• おっぱい!何故 目覚めたら そこ に おっぱい が…!
 "breasts! why, when I open my eyes, are there BREASTS (noteworthy) (in front of my face)...!?" = there could be other things in front of his face when he opens his eyes too, but breasts wasn't exactly what he expected.
• ここ の セリフ が 読者 に 伝わり づらい
 "this place's DIALOGUE LINE (noteworthy) is hard to convey to the readers" = the dialogue here (at this precise spot, notice it, I'm describing it for you!) won't get your message across.

の / (之, ノ): "restricted to", marks description or ownership. think of it like a literal rope that ties together words. the kanji show up in anime character names, pre-WWII stuff etc. but otherwise aren't in daily use.
[JP]: に 限って
• 目 の 悪い ひと
 people with bad eyes
• 適切 な 漢字 の ない 場合
 a situation where there is no fitting kanji
• 君 の 事
 "things (restricted to) thou" = you or something (ex. memories, an event, everything) to do with you.
• 情報 の 偽物
 "forgery (restricted to) information" = false info
• 竹中 の ヤロー
 "bastard (restricted to) Takenaka" (= Takenaka is the bastard, not other people).
• 犬夜叉 の バカ
 "idiot (RT) Inuyasha" = Inuyasha, you moron"
• 部下 へ の セク ハラ
 "below-section towards (RT) sex(ual) hara(ssment)" = sexual harassment directed towards a subordinate
• バーチャル じゃ ねえ 本物 の 肉 の 女
 "virtual situation not-existing, real-object (RT) meat (RT) female" = not virtual, real woman-flesh.
• 終わり の 無い 夜
 "non-existing (RT) an end night" = an endless night
• 全 宇宙 の 敵
 "enemy (RT) all space" = an enemy to all spacekind
• 喧嘩 の 弱い 優等 生
 "weak (RT) argument honors student" = an honors student bad at arguing. 生 at the end of a word is usually short for 生徒 "gradeschool student" or 学生 "university student". 喧嘩 usually more naturally translates to "fight" (but it's a mostly verbal fight).
• 体温 の ない 吸血鬼 の 冷たい 涙
 "without (RT) body-warmth, (RT) blood-suck-demon, cold tears" = the cold tears of a warmthless vampire. This isn't complicated, it's just following basic word order rules. "Cold tears" is described by "vampire('s)", "vampire" is described by "body-warmthless".
• そっち の かわい 子 ちゃん が 噂 の 新 入り さん っす か‌
 "that-place (RT) is-cute child (noteworthy/description) rumor (RT) new joiner exists huh" = the cute kid over there's the newly-joined (staff member) of rumor huh?"

の (ん): "situation". our "so, well" that we use to start sentences when asking for or giving explanations, ex. "so is it that you're leaving us?" "well i thought i'd eat dinner at home tonight".
• いったい 誰 と 話し て た ん だ‌
 so just who in the world was (he) speaking with?
• 何 が あった の?
 "what existed situation?" = so, what happened?
• 「英雄 に なり たい の です か」「俺 は 逃げる の が 嫌 な だけ です」
 "hero-wise become-want situation exists huh?" "i run-away situation dislike being just exists" = "so, you want to become a hero?" "(No,) I just hate running away."
• お 前 ら が 悪い ん だ
 "you guys are is-bad situation exists" = "well, you guys're bad" (that's why I'm gonna kill you now)
• 落ち 着いて あなた を 助け に 来た の よ‌
 "(please) calm down, thee arrived to save situation!" = calm down, we came to save you!
• 「ばんわー、私 は 虫刺 され だらけ ーw」「富士 の 樹 海 で も いった の?」
 "(good) evening, I'm covered in bug-bites lol" "including at Fuji's tree-sea went situation?" = "so did you walk around in Fuji's vast forest of huge old trees?
• な の に
 "being situation-wise" = that being the case, being that kind of (person), etc.
• テープ の 跡 だ
 "tape situation vestige exists" = it's the remains of tape (sticky gunk left over on an object after you've removed tape from it)
• 俺 別に あんた に 意地悪 する つもり は なかった ん だ けど さ、気 が 変わった わ‌
 well, i didn't really have an(y) intention of being mean to you, but (my) mood's changed.
• まあ 行って 確かめる の が 一番 だろう な‌
 "well, going (and) makes-sure situation (noteworthy!) number-one situationally (i) suppose being" = well, going (yourself) to confirm (it) is probably best, huh.

のに : "contrary to expectations". It's simply の "object, (placeholder)" and に "-wise" put together in roughly the same wording as our "that (thing) being the situation/case".
• 飲んで 帰って きた の に まだ バック アップ が 終わらない の か…
 "drinking (i've) come back (home action-wise) back-up (action) still become-ends not huh..." despite that I've gone out drinking and come back home again, the back-up's still not finished yet huh..."
• 世間 は 春 だ と いう の に、俺 の 心 は 冬 の まま か…
 "the world is in spring. saying (that -wise), my heart is still winter huh..." = The world is in spring, but it's still winter in my heart."
• うまい。外国人 な の に 大した もん だ ね
 "it's tasty. being a foreigner (action-wise) it's great." = despite being a foreigner, their (Japanese) cooking is great.
• 誰か を 守る 仕事 だった はず な の に な‌
 "despite that it should've been work that protects someone, (it's actually work where i just keep shooting people)"
• 嫌い なら 見 なけれ ば いい の に なあ。
 "if (it's a) hate the-event-of-not-see is-good, but contrary to that" = "if (you) don't like it (you) shouldn't look at it..." = don't like, don't read. but you just keep reading, huh!

— Note that the "kanji" form of くのいち (くノ一) "female ninja" is actually in origin the kanji for 女 broken up into its parts (you first write く, then ノ then 一 to write 女), it's not actually the word の.
— こ, そ, あ anciently were standalone nouns so この、その、あの actually already have の attached, so we don't double it up and say このの.

の : "situation" (事態 etc), or replaces any noun or phrase (either that you've already said or are going to say later on) so you don't have to say it twice.
• 課長、本当 に ゲイ じゃ ない の か な?
 = ゲイ じゃ ない [課長/事態] か な?
 "i'm wondering if the section chief 'really' isn't (a) gay [section chief/situation]?" = I wonder if the section chief "really" isn't gay? isn't the situation that he really IS gay?
• 海 の 見える の は、どちら 側 です(?)
 = 見える [側/事態] は、どちら 側 です
"a sea-viewable [side/situation] is which side?" = from which side (of the train) can (we) see the sea?
• 誰か を 守る 仕事 だった はず な の に な‌
 = はず な [仕事/事態] に な‌
 "despite that (this) [work/situation] should've been work that protects someone..."
• タバコ は 体 に 悪い の よ
 = 体 に 悪い [事態]
 "tobacco is [a situation] bad in the body!" = tobacco's bad for you!
• お 洗濯 が 好き な の ね
 = 好き な [事態]
 "laundry is a like(d) [situation], eh?" = (you) sure seem to like doing laundry.
• 来る の は 明日 の はず…
• 来る [電車/事態] は 明日 [事態] はず…
 "arriving [train/situation] is tomorrow [situation] should've... = (the train's) arrival should've been tomorrow (not today)!"
• こんな 所 に いた の か!
 = いた [事態]
 "this-kind-of location-wise existed [situation] huh!" = so (you) were in this kind of place, were you!

あれる : becomes (by another person/thing, compared to by the speaker themselves etc)
[JP]: (場合) に なる
• 午前 4 時 ちょうど に 死体 が 発見 された‌
 the dead body was discovered at exactly 4 o'clock
• 完全 自動 化 された 生産 ライン の 中 で 唯一 の 有人 区画 だ‌
 among the completely automated production lines (this building's) the only one that has humans working in it
• 悪い ヤツ だ ねー もし あいつ に バレたら 殺される ぜ、お 前
 "(he's) a bad guy, if (you're) found out by him (you'll) become killed y'know!"
• 帰れ! って 言われた から 帰る ん だ よ
 " 'go home!' became said (to me by another person) so i'm goin' home!"
• みんな で 作り 上げた ギルド じゃ ない か… どうして 簡単 に 捨て られる ん だ よ
 "isn't (this the) guild everyone made to completion (together)! how can (it become so) easily thrown away!"
• 破棄 された 地下鉄 路線 です‌
• 逃げ られる と 思ってる の‌

あせる: lets, causes
[JP]: 場合 する
• 君 は 僕 を 失望 させた‌
 you caused/let me lose hope = you dashed my hopes
• そう 思わせたい 誰か
 "that-way think-cause-want someone" = someone who wants to make (us) think that way
• 外 に 出る なら せめて 服 を 着せて くれない か
 if (we're) going outside, won't (you) at least let me put some clothes on?
• キス させて くれ、キス!
 "(please) (you permiss and give me) a kiss, a kiss!" = please let me kiss you!
• 洋平 君、もう この 勝負 やめ させて?
 "Shouhei-kun, can't you cause this battle (between 2 other people) to stop?" = can't you make them stop?

— To remember the difference between these two: あれる has なる ("become")'s なれ —> あれ sound, while あせる has する ("causes, does")'s せ sound.

まま : "while still". comes after た/だ "completed action" form.
• お 嬢 ちゃん に は 黙った まま 行く の か‌
 "while still being silent to (the) Daughter (you'll) go situation, huh" = so you're going to leave without saying anything to her, huh
• 死体 は ドローン に 生きた まま 解剖 された
 the dead body became dissected by the drone while (the "dead" body was) still alive

しまう (ちまう、ちゃう、じゃう、じまう): "screw up" (= accidentally, unfortunately). which way you say it depends on formality level and dialect, there's a ton of variations so eventually you'll just recognize new forms by context.
[JP]: わざと じゃ ない、残念 だ が
• しまった!
 "(I've) screwed up!" = shit!
• 眠 過ぎ ちゃった…
 "(I) screwed up (and) over-slept..."
• 慣れて しまった
 "screwed up (and) become-used-to" = we've unfortunately gotten used to it (context: to a job where you kill people)
• バス に 間 に 合わない!遅刻 し ちゃう!
 "i won't be on time to the bus! i'll screw up (and) become late!"
• ああ… ますます お 兄 ちゃん を 起こらせ ちゃった わ
 "aah... (he's) screwed up (and) made Brother more and more angry" = he keeps screwing up and making him madder and madder
• こう なっちまったら = なって しまったら
 "this way become screw-up if/when" = if things've gotten all screwed up and become like this (anyway, then I'll change my plans)
• 森 さん どこ 行っちゃった ん で しょう?
 "(so) where'd Mr. Forest (go off to, I) wonder?". Mr. Forest "screwed up the plan" and got separated from the group (they were supposed to stick together).

しまう (ちまう、ちゃう、じゃう、じまう): "completely; put it away" (ex. put food into the fridge). origin is "if you put it away it means you're completely done with it", etc.
• そう だ。壊して しまえ。恐れ も 悲しみ も 愛 も 全て。
 "(in) that way (it) exists. destroy and put it away" = that's right. destroy it all. including fear, including sadness, including love, everything."
• もう お しまい だ
 "already a completion exists" = shit, this is the end(, I'm gonna die). i've screwed-up big time.
• なぜ みんな 早く 不自由 な 肉体 を 捨て て しまわない の か‌
 why is it that people don't just completely quickly throw away their bodies of flesh?

はず: ought (= should've)
• 2人 は 仲間 に なる はず だった の に…
 "though (those) two people should've become friends (they haven't, instead they're battling in front of the whole school)"

も: "including (all)". can mean the speaker/writer thinks it's an impressive, noteworthy or huge amount. (sorry, have to think about a better way to explain it for "what, which, who...." words)
[JP]: を 含めって、こんなに
• どの 写真 も 素敵!
 "which photo (including all) wonderful!" = each and every photo is beautiful!
• そう だ。壊して しまえ。恐れ も 悲しみ も 愛 も 全て。
 "that's right. destroy it all. including fear, including sadness, including love, everything." (= destroy even sadness, even love, etc.)
• 就職 も 結婚 も 望み なんか ありゃ し ねえ‌ = あれ は し ない
 "obtain-work including become-married including hopes any kind of existance (among other things) is without" = "stuff like finding work, getting married, I don't have any kind of hopes (left at all)".
• こら こら ラグビー じゃ ない ん だ ぞ!ドリブル も 知らない の か?!
 "hey hey, (this) isn't rugby y'know! including "dribble" is an unknown thing (to you)?!" = so you don't even know how to dribble?!
• 夢 と いって も
 "including when (you) say dream" = even (if you) say (it's a) dream
• 私 も 同じ です。戦 で 全て を 失い ました。
 "including i the same (situation) exists. in (the) war (i) lost everything." = i'm the same as (you). i too lost everything thanks to the war.
• 「ばんわー、私 は 虫刺 され だらけ ーw」「富士 の 樹 海 で も いった の?」
 "'evening, I'm covered in bug-bites lol" "so (you) went including at Fuji's tree-sea?" = so did you even walk around in Fuji's vast forest of huge old trees?
• 今日 も また 優雅 に 個室 で ランチ かい ?‌
 this-day including again soldary-wise single-room locationally lunch eh? = so today you're eating lunch in your solitary room again, eh?
 
という (といふ、って、っつ、っつって) / と言う: "when [name/definition] speak(ing)". Clarifies names/definitions and is used to quote stuff, sorta like our "that said" only it's "(quote) said". The kanji isn't normally used because they consider it a phrase and thus not us literally speaking the name. っつ is Tokyo-casual 言う, 言ふ is the archaic original (modern dialectal).
• ◯◯ と 言い ます。よろしく
 "◯◯ when [name] speaking. pleasurely" = I'm called ◯◯. A pleasure (to meet you)!
• デビル マン と いう 漫画
 "devil man when [name] speaking manga" = a/the manga called Devilman
• なん だ って?! = 何 だ と 言う?!
 "what existing when [name]-saying?!" = what (was that you just said)?!
• 暗い と いふ 意味 で ある
 "is-unseeable when [name] speaking meaning exists" = it has the meaning of "dark, unable to see".

だと: "だ と [言う]". Shows more surprize/outrage than saying the full form; in anime often used by stuffy formal people, ex. military bosses.
• なん だ と?! = 何 だ と 言う?!
 "what existing when [name-saying]?!" = WHAT (did you (just) say)?!

こむ / 込む: into.
• 沼 を 調べる ため に は 飛び 込む しか ない‌
 in order to investigate a swamp you've no choice but to jump in
• ここ まで 攻め 込んで 来た 敵 プレイヤー は いな かった けど な
 "enemy players (who) came attack(ing)-into until this place didn't exist though, huh" = though there weren't ever any enemy players who (managed to) invade all the way here (at level 10 of my guild).

ておく(とく) / て置く: "(non-literally) sit and x", as in "sit there and wait, shut up and sit (down), just sit and eat". you'll do this action and then stay there "sitting" awaiting further orders or a situation change etc. literally this verb means "put". it's put after て but the e of "te" gets eaten in casual speech.
• 覚悟 して おけ
 "sit (and) do preparation!" = just prepare yourself for now.
• 止めとけ
 "sit and stop!" = just stop already.
• ほっとけ! = ほっとく おけ!
 "sit and drop (it)!" = just drop it! just leave (it/them) alone!
• あの 時 … ◯◯ を 殺して おけば よかった‌
 "yon when... ◯◯ if-sat (and) kill(ed) was-good" = back then, it would've been good if i'd've just killed ◯◯. (i wish i'd've just killed him.)

しか: anything more than (= only)
• まだ 名前 しか 知らない
 "still front-name anything more than don't know" = (we) still don't know anything more than (his) forename
• あんた に しか 聞こえん よ‌
 "anything more than you can('t) hear (it)" = no one else but you can hear it.
• ワタシ ニホンゴ シカ ワカリマセン
 "i don't understand anything more than japanese" = i only understand japanese
• 私 に しか でき ない 仕事 が きっと ある
 "definitely exists work that anything more than I can't do" = there's definitely work out there that only I can do
• たった 50 人 しか いない
 "only not existing any more than 50 humans" = there's only 50 people
• 一 回 しか 行けない
 "anything more than one time can't go" = (I) can only do it once
• ここ しか 他 に ない‌
 there's noplace else than this

なんか, なにか / 何か: any (kind of), some (kind of). origin is 何 "thing" か "doubt(ful/unknown type)".
• なにか 用 です か?
 "some/any kind of errand exists?" = do you have any errand (to do with him)? what's up?
• 何か 言い たい こと は ?‌
 have anything you want to say?
• 今回 も 裏 に 何か ある

に : "-wise", ex. "time-wise". Explicitly turns words into adverbs ("whom, where, whither, when, how, why").


に : Short for "ため に" (reason-wise).
• 食べ [ため]に 行く
 "goes [reason-wise] eat" = goes in order to eat
• 落ち 着いて あなた を 助け [ため]に 来た の よ‌
 "(please) calm down, (we) thee came to save (reason)!" = calm down, we came to save you!

だけ :
• できる だけ
• やる だけ は やって みよう

は、わ : "is, am, are, was" (links an idea to something else). わ is when you're spelling as how you pronounce.
[JP]: って
• 犬 は 犬
 "dog (link) dog" = dogs are dogs, a dog is a dog
• こん ばん わ!
 "this night (link)!" = (hope you're having a good) evening!
• 行く わ よ
 "goes (link) (new info)" = (i'm) going! yeah i'll come with!

より : under (in comparisions).
• 役目 より 正義 を 優先 できた‌
 "duty under justice (affected by) chose were-able" = you managed to chose justice over duty.
• 女 より アニメ を 選んだ 男
 "woman under anime (affected by) chose man" = a man who chose anime over women

より : "travelling from". also used when writing "from (name)" on letters (the letter travelled from them to you), and starting events (travelling from a point in time until another point in time).
• エロイカ より 愛 を こめて
 "Eroika travelling-from love (affected-with) puts in" = from Eroika with love.
• 東 京 より 仙台 へ
 "east-capital travelling-from Sendai towards" = going from Tokyo towards Sendai

ている (てる, てゐる) / て居る: in (the act/state). ておる (same kanji) is dialectal. Note that ています can be shortened to てます, ていっす etc.
• やっぱり 怒って ます か?‌
 as (I) thought, (you're currently) angry?
• あらゆる 電波 が 遮断 されて る
 each and every electric(/internet) wave is (currently) being blocked out
• いったい 誰 と 話し て た ん だ‌
 just who in the world was (he) speaking with?
• んなこた~分かってるっての!‌

よう : way (manner). ex. ようにする "cause (that) way" = ensure that.
• 「笑わない よう に する の が 大変 だった‌」「ですよねー」
 ensuring i didn't laugh was really difficult = it was hard to keep a straight face. "i know, right?"
• 母 の よう に なり たく は ない だろう?
 "wantless to become way-wise (your) mom (I) surmise?" = you don't want to end up like your mom, do you? (context: the mom is a dead coward)

てある / て在る(?) : has been (done)
• 今 の チャット は ログ を 取って ある な‌
 the chat from (just) now's been logged, hasn't it.

なら : if (it's)
• 文句 が ある なら はっきり 言え‌
 if (you) have complaints, say it straight out!
• ホント に ワナ なら 危険 です‌
 "REAL-LY a trap if/when danger situationally-exists" = if it's REALLY a trap, it's dangerous (to go in there!)

ら (等), たち (達), ども (供) : "group of" = pluralizes something. ら is very casual, ども archaic/formal(?).
• 俺 ら "i group" = us blokes
• そいつ ら "that-guy group" = that bunch
• 本 たち "book group" = (pile of) books
• 子 供 "child group" = children (but modernly also means a single child)

で (にて formal/archaic) : locationally/situationally being (= at). origin is に "locationally (in, to)", て "being". じゃ is にてわ / でわ.
• そこ で 待って ろ
 "there locationally wait(ing)!" = wait there!
• 明日、午後 3時 に そこ で 待って ます
 "tomorrow, horse-(hour)-after 3-hour locationally there locationally-being (i'll be) waiting" = tomorrow, at 3 pm, i'll be waiting there (for you).
• はい、その メール が 最後 で
 "correct, that mail (noteworthy!) most-behind situationally-being" = yes, that email/PM being the last (one)
• それ じゃ = それ に て は
 "that-existance locationally-being (is)" = well then!

である (だ, であります, っす, でござる, でございます, ざます) : "locationally/situationally exists". basically used to end sentences. there's limitless variations but the origin is always である (basic form) or でござる (polite form).
• ワナ だ
 "trap situationally-exists" = it's a trap!

たら : "if, when". like our "if i eat cake i feel sick" = "whenever i eat cake i feel sick". origin is あら form of ある "exists" put as a tail on "past-tense" verbs (including onto itself: あったら; だったら = に て あったら). なら "if (so)" is probably the same tail on な "being".
• 何か あったら すぐ に 連絡 し ます‌
 "some/anything if-happen immediate-ly contact (will)-do" = if/when something happens, i'll contact you immediately.
• あんた が 必要 と 判断 したら そう しろ‌
 "if YOU (suppose and) decide it's a need, that-way do (i suppose)" = (we'll) do it if/when you decide it's necessary.

みたい / (見たい) : seems like. origin is 見る "sees" 痛い "hurts (in my opinion)".
• そう みたい です
 "that-way see-hurt exists" = seems that way.

を : affect(ed, -ing etc)
• ジュース を 飲んだ
 "juice affected drank" = drank juice

から: from, since
• 今 から 君 は 私 たち の 家族 だ‌
 "from now (on) you are my-group's family-clan" = from now on you're a part of my family
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