22 September 2017 @ 03:07 pm
I'm collecting example sentences for JLPT grammar points. Continuously updated. They're in no particular order aside from general JLPT level. If you need more examples of higher-level grammar, try an Aozora Bunko search like this.

[JP] = Japanese explanation (when I can think of one).

{word} = Where I've seen it used. Only for hard-to-find grammar points that you might not find practice material for easily.

Last updated: 2017.09.29

—————— N1 ——————

If a piece of "grammar" doesn't exist on any JLPT study list, I'll add it to N1 no matter how common it is IRL. Ex. やがる won't appear on the JLPT because it's too rude, but you'll see it constantly in fiction so here in N1 level.

ごっこ: "playing (pretend)"
• ターザン ごっこ に 付き 合って は おれん‌
 i won't join you in playing tarzan(?)

わかる / 分かる: "discovered" (about information), ex. used to say "from looking at the data chart, we can discover that...".
• 警察 官 が 調べた ところ、わら を 詰めた 人形 だ と 分かった。
 the police, upon having investigated, discovered it to be a doll stuffed with straw (= a scarecrow).

あくまで (あくまでも) : from beginning to end(?)
• 目的 は あくまで も 赤石‌
 (my) goal, from beginning to end, is the red stone

ずら: dialectal だろう(?) (shows a "guess" or "y'know?")
• ドア じゃ ねえ ズラ‌=ドア じゃ ねえ だろう(?)

やがる: "completely". seems to just be a ruder version of しまう, directed towards people who aren't yourself, and can be stacked on top of しまう. しまう can be directed towards yourself.
[JP] しまう
• ゴム みたい に 体 に 包み 込め やがった‌
 like (a body made of) rubber, (the knife) got completely sucked into (his) body!
• 駄々っ子 の よう に 泣き 喚いて やがる‌
 like a spoiled brat, (he's) completely switched over to crying (from anger)
• 右腕 の 産毛 が 全部 抜け ちまい やがった‌
 (you) completely removed my right arm's hair

よくも: "how dare (you)!"
• よ … よくも よくも 俺 の 顔 に 傷 を つけた な‌
 h... how dare you, how dare you, wounding my face!

やで: dialectal だよ.
• 雨やで=雨だよ

れいの / 例の: "that" (you-know-who) when specifically not mentioning something's or someone's name. origin: 例 "example", so it's like saying "example name".
• 例の 男
 "that" man (the you-know-who man)
• 今 例の 画像 添付 メール の 送り先 から‌ 新しい メール が 届いた ん だ‌
 the thing is, from the sending origin (= sender) of "that" (you-know-which) Email with the image attachment, a new Email's arrived.

こむ : "(action) through"(?)
• 雨 で 冷え こんで
 "cold through by the rain" = chilled to the bone by the rain

しな、がけ (し, しなに) : "upon (doing)"? or "starting to"?. Origin of がけ is 掛ける "hang on/off", ex. 話しかける to start talking (to someone). Generally speaking it's し in Kansai, しな(に) by old people.
• 帰り しな に 乗合い 自動車 は もう ない だろう か と きき ました
 upon heading back, "there's probably no (more) busses by now?" (he) asked
• 山 から 降り しな に 径 に 迷って しまって
 upon descending from the mountain, getting completely lost (from/on the road)

おもったもみなかった / 思ったも見なかった : "not even in (my) dreams".
• こんな こと に なる なんて 思って も みなかった‌
 "(everything) turning into something like this, i hadn't even dreamed (it could happen)" (talking about a festival turning into a genocide)

さもないと: or else.
• 逃げろ、早く! さもないと …‌
 escape, quickly! or else... (you'll be killed)

もはや : no longer (ex. "no longer have a choice = have no choice anymore")
• もはや お前 たち を 地上 から 一掃 する 以外 に‌ 我々 の 誇り を 回復 する 道 は ない‌
 "(we) no longer have a choice but to wipe you guys out all in one go and restore our dignity" (speaking about enemies who've been forcing them to live like rats in mud huts etc)
• 無駄 だ 貴様 は もはや 立ち 上がれる よう な 肉体 で は ない‌
 it's futile. you don't have a (physical) body that can stand up anymore. (= i've beaten you so badly you can barely stand, don't try and fight me some more)

というか (てか、ってか、っつーか、つーか、てゆーか) / と言うか: "that said".
• てか、なぜ 彼 は 英語?
 that said, why's he (speaking) english?
• ってか、◯◯ どー する?
 that said, what to do about ◯◯?

か否か:
• 君ら が ライセンス を 持って いる か 否か は 問わない‌
 it's not a question of whether or not you have a license (your disqualification lies in other areas)

たる (だる?): = て ある contracted, being the archaic/dialectal form of ている. originally there was no difference between いる, ある and おる; the difference was created a couple hundred years ago when standard japanese was created, as far as i remember.
[JP] ている、な(?)
{jojo's bizarre adventure}
• 雨 かかったる=かかって いる
 it's raining
• 清めて やる その 汚れたる 野望 を‌=汚れている
 (i'll) purify (them) for you, those dirty ambitions (of yours) (dirty = evil)
• 絢爛 たる 永遠 を 生きる‌

たる : dialectally contracted て やる "give/do for (someone)".
• 気分 を 上げ よ。上げる 方法 を 父 ちゃん が 教えたる。まず ゴミ を 出せ、部屋 の 窓 を 開け…=教えて やる
 improve your mood. daddy's teaching (you) the methods to improve it. take out your trash immediately, open the windows of your room...

ておる / て居る: you/they/it (etc) is. Formal or dialectal いる.
• 口元 に は 薄く 笑み を 浮かべて おります‌
 a smile's floating at the edges of (his) mouth

っこ : (doing a verb) together. ex. "let's ride bikes together!".
{pre-WWII stories}

っこ : = こと
• 拷問 の 訓練 で 電流 は 慣れ っこ さ‌

いずれ :
• 美しい 花 も いずれ は 枯れて 散る‌
 beautiful flowers, too, will wither and fall (= petals will fall and scatter)

もしくは: probably the same as もし (archaic form would be もしい, just like 同じ was 同じい etc).


べからず: origin: あず form of べき、べし、べい etc.
• あ~ら 疑い ある べからず
 "oh my, (you) shouldn't have any doubts" (??)

まみれ : = だらけ (formal). "riddled with, covered in".
• 男性 が 血 まみれ で 死亡 して いる ところ と が 見つかれ
 a male was found, dead and covered in blood

あげる / 上げる : "finish", in the sense of "do the action so that we get the end result". same as our up in "write up that paper", "eat up the food", and arguably a few phrases like "shut up, hang up the phone, kick up a storm, whip something up" etc.
{recipes}
• 小説 書き あげた
 "small fable a write finished" = (i) wrote up a short story.
• 婆 さん は その 白い 箱 を 拾い 上げた
 "old-lady person that is-white box lift-take finished" = the old lady picked up that white box

極めて : utter/exceedingly
{stuffy formal people in anime}
• 極めて 特異 な ケース だ
 "utter special-strange case exists" = this is a super special/peculiar case (so all the info is classified)
• この 状態 で 飛び 込む など 愚 行 の 極み だ
 in this kind of situation (= dark, unknown place) jumping in and the like would be the pinnacle of foolish acts.

ごく / 極く: "extremely". possibly means slightly less "exceedlingly" than 極めて.
• ええ 私 は この 目 で 見た わ‌。 それ も ごく 間近 で‌
 yes, I saw (it) with these eyes. what's more, at an extremely close distance.
• もちろん 漏出 して いる 呪力 は ごく 微弱 だ から‌

ごと / 毎: "whole" (and all, completely)
• 血管 ごと 凍らせれば
 if (i) completely freeze (your) blood veins, (arm) and all
• 殺し 方 は この まま 顎 ごと 口 を 引き 裂く‌
• 部下 の 体 ごと 撃て 撃て 撃ちまくれ‌!
 shoot, shoot, shoot full of holes that subordinate (of mine's) entire body!

ごとく (ごとき): "is similar (to)". an old verb that didn't get converted to the modern い sound (would've been ごとい; ex. 赤い used to be 赤き).
{insults in anime}
• 貴様 ごとき
 a bastard like you
• 意外 てっきり 追い 詰め られた 野獣 の ごとく‌ 反撃 に 出る と 警戒 し て い た が‌

なし : "without". same exact word as ない(無い, just the archaic pronunciation that fossilized), nowadays used as a "noun form".
[JP] がない、のない
• こちら、特 に 変わった こと は なし だ‌
 there's nothing strange here. (変わった is a phrase meaning "strange")
• お前 を 葬る のに 罪悪 感 なし‌
 although (i'll) kill/bury you, (i) won't feel guilt

のみ: =だけ (formal/archaic/dialectal). "only".
{formal; train tickets, usage instructions}
• ご 乗車 日 のみ 有効 です
 "(your) ride-wheel day only (on) have-effect situation exists" = (this ticket) is only good for the day you're actually riding the train.
• 競技 は 終始 呪力 のみ を 使って 行われる
 the competition is done, from start to finish, using only psychic power
• 狙う は 慈光 帝 のみ !‌
• この 花 は 枯れ 行く のみ‌
 this flower is only going to wilt

ぶち、ぶっ / 打ち: adds emphasis to an action in the same way we put pressure to our voice or use capslock ("KILL him!!" versus "kill him!"). Literally means "hit" but is kinda like our "totally, fucking". whether it's ぶち or ぶっ seems to be up to the person and not the sound that comes after, as I've seen both ぶっ殺せ and ぶち殺す for example (ぶっ seems more forceful).
• ぶっ殺せ!
 KILL (him)! = fucking kill him!
• 気 に 入らねえ やつ は ぶち 殺す‌
 "guys/things (I) don't like, (I)'ll KILL (them)". 気 に 入る "become in (a good) mood" is a phrase meaning "to like/have an interest in something".
• 予 想 どおり ノート pc は ぶっ 壊れた
 "pre-imagine road, note PC was became-BROKEN" = just as i thought (before checking to make sure), my notebook PC's totally busted

付け、付き: "affixed" (attached, including). origin: 付ける
• 歌 詞 付き 動画
 song with lyrics attached (= subtitled)
• 紋章 付き の 封筒
 an envelope with a coat-of-arms affixed (= stamped on)
• 昨日 付け で 刑事課 に 配属 に なり まし た。 常 守 朱 です‌
• だから…貴様 が どこ に も 逃げ 出せない よう‌ この 工場 に 釘 付け に して やる‌

め / (目?) : "damn(ed)", attaches to the back of things just like the 目 with means "-th" in numbers (4th, 6th etc). haven't looked up where it comes from, maybe something like 悪魔の目 "demon's eye" (= demon's helper) etc.
{insults in anime}
• この バカ め‌
 "this damned idiot!" = this fucking moron!
• くず め‌
 "damn trash!" = you piece of shit!

—————— N2 ——————

といえば / と言えば: "in x terms"(?)
• 君 は 花 で 言えば ちょうど この ぐらい の 若さ と 言える‌
 you in flower terms could be said to be exactly this young(?)

いわゆる : "in other words"?
• ケータイ の 画面 を パシャリ と 撮る 行為 が「スクショ」いわゆる スクリーン ショット です
 the act of doing "pashari" to your mobile phone screen is "scsho", in other words "screen shot".

そういえば / そう言えば : "on that subject" (= now that you mention it)
• 「(complaint) 私 に 言う な ァァ」「そう いえば、あいつ の 名前 が ◯◯ に なって た よう な」
 "(complaint about a guildmate) don't say it to meee" "on that subject, that guy's (= the one you're complaining about) name's changed to (be like) ◯◯"

えば (ほど) : "the more... the more". ex. the richer he gets the happier I am. usually the verb is repeated (-eba then u-form) but it doesn't have to be if ほど (程) is added; 程 by itself (without -eba form) can also mean this.
• もがけば もがく ほど 強く‌ 髪の毛 が 僕 の 血 を 吸って いる‌
 the more (i) struggle the (more) stronger (his) hair sucks out my blood (said about a vampire that uses a "hair attack")
• 獲物 が 賢い ほど 狩り も 楽しく なる‌
 the wiser the prey, the funner the hunt
• 今朝 の 朝御飯 は オーバー ナイト オーツ。フルーツ や ナッツ は 沢山 乗せれば 乗せる ほど 美味しい
 this morning's morning meal: oats over toast. (with) fruits and nuts, the more you put on the better it tastes.
• 焦れば 焦る ほど 敵 の 思うつぼ だ‌
 the more (you) lose your cool, the more you'll fall into the enemy's trap.

したがう / 従う: "following (that)". used like "so, therefore".
• 貴様 の エネルギー は 血液 の 流れ に 関係 ある もの らしい‌。従って 血管 ごと 凍らせれば エネルギー は 送り 出せない‌
 your energy seems to be a thing with a connection to (your) blood. following that, if (i) completely freeze your blood veins (arm and all), (you) won't be able to send out energy.

とちゅう / 途中 : while (on the way).
• 帰国 途中 で
 on the way to returning to (his) country

なんとしても : "no matter what". origin: なんと + しても
[JP] どうしても
• なんとしても あの 男 を 消滅 させねば ならん‌
 (we) have to eliminate (= kill) that man no matter what

せめて / 攻めて: "at least (do)".
• せめて 英語 で 頼む って いった w
 'at least (write) in english, please' (i) said haha (talking about someone who wrote in mandarin to them)

なお / 尚: "continued" (= unchanged from before)
[JP] 相変わらず、(そのまま)続いている
• ちょっと 加 筆 し ました なお 改めて おめでと~!
 "a little added pen did. yet another congrats!" = another touch of the pen. still on the congratulation theme! (said about drawing a fourth "happy birthday" picture)

および / 及び: "as well as", "either".
• 氏名 および タイプ 別 は 不明 です が‌
 although its name as well as its type is unknown = although we don't know either it's name nor its type

にもかかわらず / (いも関わらず): "despite that". literally "unrelating to (that)". あず form of かかわる "involved/concerned/related with" (has various different kanji forms).
• お前 たち と 平等 に 扱われる べき 存在 な の だ‌。にもかかわらず 尊厳 を 奪われ 獣 の よう な 扱い を 受けて きた‌
 "(we're) existances that should be treated as equals (by) you. despite that, (we've) been taking (bad) treatment like beasts robbed of their dignity."

さらに / 更に: "even more/further".
• 更に 湖底 へ 潜った‌
 dove even further (down) towards the lake bottom
• 核 を 守る ため 更 に 核
 "in order to protect nuclear (bombs), further nuclear (bombs)" = A-bombs to protect A-bombs (talking about the USA stockpiling nuclear weapons in Okinawa after WWII)

っこない : absolutely impossible
• でも ここ で 恐怖 に 負けたら‌ この先 どんな 相手 と だって 戦え っこない ぞ‌

あざる:
• 思わざる
• これ は 私 の 偽らざる 気持ち です
• 沖縄 と 核、アメリカ 統治 下 の 知られざる 真実
• 原爆 の 惨禍 を 生き 抜いて~知られざる “原爆 孤児”

しかも : along with that.
• しかも 核爆弾 と は 違い。‌体力 さえ 保て ば 際限なく 殺戮 を 続ける こと だって ありうる
• 北海道 今日 も 肌 寒い です!しかも 雨
 "north sea road today too (to the) skin is-cold exists! along with that, rain" = in Hokkaido it's chilly today again, and on top of that there's rain

うる :
• しかも 核爆弾 と は 違い。‌体力 さえ 保て ば 際限なく 殺戮 を 続ける こと だって ありうる

げ : seem (?)
• ストイック だ なぁ かわい げ ない
 (you're) sure stoic, huh. not cute at all.

たえる / 耐える : endure ("stand something, keep dealing with it"). seems to mean you REALLY can't stand something, as in you'd rather kill yourself or something than keep on doing it (but i don't actually know).
• 恥かしく て 恥かしく て たまらぬ こと
 being ashamed, being ashamed, an event/fact (i) can't stand = "a most burning shame".
• 1人 だったら 本当 に 絶対 耐え られ なかった と 思う‌
 if (i were) alone (i) really absolutely wouldn't've been able to stand it, (i) think
• 家 に 帰る たび に 誰 か が 私 の 部屋 に 入った 跡 が ある ん です。こんな の 耐え られない
 every time i come home there's signs that someone's entered my room. i won't be able to deal with this kind of thing.

こめる / 込める: "puts into" (forces to go into). origin: 込む "goes into".
• エロイカ より 愛 を こめて
 "Eroika out-of love (affected-with) puts in" = from Eroika with love.

ものの:= けど (formal/dialectal)
{Hokkaido people? news}
• 低 気 圧 に なって よかった ものの 雨 降る か な
 "low air pressure-ly becoming good though rain falls huh being" = i'm glad the atmospheric pressure dropped but will it rain i wonder?
• そして いま あつい ( ̄▽ ̄;) 台風 消えて よかった ものの
 "that-doing now is-hot. typhoon disappearing was-good though" = and it's hot! i'm glad the typhoon went away though
• いずれ も 有効 で は ある ものの‌ 完璧 で は あり ません でした‌
• 幼い 頃 は 病気 は あった ものの まだ もう 少し 視力 はあった し
 though (i've) had (this) sickness (= aniridia) throughout my young childhood, still (i) have a little eyesight
• 戦い に は 敗れた ものの‌ 目的 を 達成 し た ゴン の 気持 は 爽やか だった‌
 though having lost in battle, having met his goal Gon was feeling "fresh"
• 沖縄 に 核 兵器 が 配備 されて いた こと は「公然 の 秘密」と されて きた ものの、その 内実 は ほとんど 明らか に なって いない。
 though that nuclear weapons had become stationed at Okinawa has become a "public (= open) secret", the actual situation is almost entirely unclear.

つつ: "(and) keep (doing)". Origin: 続ける "continues".
[JP] ながら
• お はよう ござい ます。今日 は 長 崎 を 思い つつ…
 good morning. today (i'll/we'll) keep remembering Nagasaki... (said on the anniversary of the atomic bombing).
• この 道 を 泣き つつ われ の 行きしこと、わが 忘れなば 誰 か 知るらむ
• 変わら なきゃ と 思い つつ‌、何 を どう したら いい の か まったく わから ない ん です‌
 (i) keep thinking "i've gotta change", (but) what should i do? i've no idea
• 百合 界隈 の 公用語 が エスペラント に 移行 し つつ ある…
• 女王 が 精神 の 均衡 を 失い つつ あった こと を …‌
• エスペラント 楽しい www とりあえず メモ を とり つつ 読む
 esperanto's fun hahahah anyway (i'll) keep taking memos and (will continue to) read

ぬく / 抜く : without. literal meaning is "pulls (something) out".
• 栓 抜き
 "stopper remove(r)" = bottle opener
• 今晩 は 食事 抜き だ‌
 "oh tonight, meal remove exists" = tonight (you'll) go without dinner

たまえ / (給え): "please" (formal/archaic). origin: 給う "supplies", so it's literally "supply (me with)".
{anime: rich/formal people, bosses}
[JP] お願い、くれ
• 来 たまえ(き たまえ)
 please come!
• よーく 考えて み たまえ
 "please try thinking about it well" = ponder it deeply

ふう / 風 : "style, wind".
• 洋 風
 non-asian style (ex. music)
• 俺 の こと を そう いう ふう に 言って た の か
 "so (she) was talking about me in that kind of style, huh"

いちおう / 一応 : "for the moment", "somehow". originally was written as 一往 (= 一行 ) "one go/action/trip".
• てめぇ ちょっと 待て 一応 俺 は 師匠 だ ぞ‌ 
 you (brat), hold it! for the moment i'm a teacher y'know!
• データ は 古い です けど 一応 は…
 "data (is) is-old situationally-exists but for-the-moment is..." = though the (map) data's old, it's what we'll have to use for now.

ぶり / 振り: first time (in x time period)
[JP]: ある 時間 に、初めて
• 久しぶり = 久しい ぶり "first time in a long time"
• 今日 は 10日 ぶり ぐれー に 学校 に 行って…
 "today (was the) first time (in) around 10 days that (i) went to school..."
• イン する の は 二年 ぶり です か ね…
 "becoming logged in (action), first time (in) 2 years exists huh..." = (this is) the first time in 2 years that I've logged in, huh.
• ◯◯が いきなり うち の 家 きて、 小学生 ぶり だ よ
 "for ◯◯ to suddenly come to our house, it's the first time since elementary school!"
• 10年 ぶり 雑誌 広告 に 復活。読み 切り 漫画 も
 "for the first time in 10 years, a revival in advertisement. (the ad's) even a manga you can read to the end!"

ふり / 振り: feign(ing)
• 知らぬ 振り を して 下さい。これ は うち の 問題 です。
 "feign that (you) don't know, please. this is our (insiders': not your!) problem."
• 他 の 人 々 が 襲われて いる の を 見て 見ぬ ふり
 "other diverse people's becoming attacked [situations] seeing not-see feign" = pretending to not see (all the) other people getting attacked
• どうした? 言葉 は 話せる ん だろ?‌ 今さら 分からない ふり を して も 無駄 だ ぞ‌
 "what's wrong? (you) can speak (japanese) words, can't you? it's too late to pretend you don't know (japanese), it's useless."

といい (といい) / と良い: "both". can be repeated but might not be.
[JP]: (こいつ)も (そいつ)も
• 「田舎」→「いなか」、「大和」→「やまと」の 読み は「熟字 訓」と いい
 "田舎, 大和's readings are both 'compound readings" = both "countryside" and "Japan" have special pronunciations that aren't in any way connected to the kanji themselves.

き, きぶん / 気, 気分: in the mood to.
[JP]: 気分 ("mood")
• やる 気
 "in the mood to do" = motivation
• 殺気
 "in the mood to murder" = intent to kill, bloodlust
• たま に 学校 行く 気 に なる
 "sometimes (i) become in the mood to go to school" = sometimes i feel like going to school
• あなた を 抱き 枕 に して 寝 たい 気分 だった の よ
 "doing you into a hug-pillow, want-to-sleep mood (i) was (in that situation)" = it's because I wanted to sleep and felt like turning you into a body-pillow.

上: based on (-wise)
[JP]: 立場 (から見ると)
• くそ っ 理論 上 は 完璧 な はず の に どうして…
 "shit! on theory it should've been perfect, why (didn't it work?)..." = theory-wise it should've worked so why didn't it!
• 「住民 は‌?」「登録 上 は 無人 区画 だ が‌ お かげ で 浮浪者 の 巣窟 だ‌」
 "(And) the (district) residents?" "on the (government) register (it's) a humanless district but thanks to that it's a den of drifting jobless people (= hobos)" = based on reading the register it's an empty distrct, but tons of homeless people are here.

ところを / 所を: situation-wise. this is clearly short for something (what word's missing after を?) but i haven't figured out what yet.
[JP] 場合で、のに
• 潜在 犯 と して 隔離 される べき ところ を‌…
 "(they) should've become isolated as potential crime(-doers) situation-wise..." = they should've been thrown into isolation because they could potentially commit crimes, but that's not the current situation.

— Note that ところへ and ところに mean "going TOWARDS situation-wise", as in "when I was just about to (get myself into that situation)" etc.

どころ
• 今 の どころ よく わかって おり ません
 "(we/i) don't understand the current situation well"

ところ: "upon"?
• 警察 官 が 調べた ところ、わら を 詰めた 人形 だ と 分かった。
 the police, upon having investigated, discovered it to be a doll stuffed with straw (= a scarecrow).

まい: not (archaic). ある まい = ない, 知る まい=知らない etc.
• 関係 は ある まい‌
 there's no relation
• まあ 抜く まで の ことに は なる まい よ‌
 well (things) probably won't get so bad that we have to go so far as to pull out (our guns)
• 答え は 知る まい
 the answer's unknown

とも / 共 : together
• あなた と 共 に 死に ます‌
 (i'll) die together with you
• この 夫婦 知って る!2 人 とも 目 が 見えて ないけど 上手 に 子 育て して る。
 i know this married couple! both of them are blind but they're doing a good job raising (their) kids.
• 一番 の 金持ち に なれ だ と、ああ なって やる とも‌
"become the richest! (he said), yeah i'll definitely do it (just you watch).
• よろしい です とも‌
• そう とも
• いい です とも!
 well, isn't that good! (ex. "a cat licked me, it was cute" "well, isn't that good! you seem happy!")
• お 二方 とも どうも ありがとう ございます
• 場所 日時 とも に 君 が 決めて いい‌
 it's fine if you choose both the place and time of day (for our battle)

かぎり / 限り : "as long as". origin: the verb 限る "to limit (something)".
• 生きて いる 限り
 (for) as long as (we) live = for the rest of our lives
• 私 は、お 前 達 全て の 人間 の 影 だ。人間 に 昏き 心 が ある 限り、私 は 消せん。
 i'm the shadow (= mirror, product) of all ye humans. as long as there's murkiness in human hearts, i won't disappear.
• 貴様 が ここ に 閉じ こもって る かぎり 犯罪 は 立証 できない‌
 as long as your mug's shut away in here you can't commit any crimes
• ヤツ ら を 全滅 させ ない 限り 安全 と は 言え ない‌
 as long as (we) haven't completely destroyed those guys (= the enemy), (we) can't say it's safe
• 平気 よ。命令 しない 限り 襲わない から‌
 oh, it's fine. as long as (the monster cat) has no orders (it) won't attack, that's why.
• 僕 も できる 限り の 協力 は する つもり だ よ‌
 i too intend to help out as far (= much) as I can!

える (うる) / 得る : can (do/be)
• 何者 に も 成り 得る 君
 you who can become anyone (else but can't be yourself)
• キラ は 捜査 本部 の 情報 を 得る 手段 を 持って いる
• 啓示:人 の 力 で は 知り 得ない こと を 神 が 教え 示す こと。
 revelation: (a word that) shows things taught by a god that are unknown to human power (= that humans can't possibly do)
• 空港 で 水 かったら 37クローナ 495円 も します。日本 で は あり えない こと
 if (you) buy water at the airport it's (as much as) 495 yen. such a thing can't be in japan = an unthinkable high cost compared to japan.
• あの 箱 は 爆薬 数 十トン の 衝撃 に も 耐え うる‌
 that box can tolerate tens of tons' worth of explosives(?)

をえない を得ない : "can't not do" (can't let it go un-...-ed). origin: 得る.
• やむ を 得ない
 can't let (it) go unstopped

—————— N3 ——————

めったに : "often seen" (= commonplace)
• 自然界 に も めったに ない 美しい 宝石‌
 a beautiful jewel that's not often seen in the natural world

いっぽう / 一方: "just keep (go)ing"
• ピストン 内 の 蒸気 の 逃げ道 は なくなり‌ 圧力 は 高まる 一方‌!船 は 爆発 する‌!
 the piston's internal steam escape-route disappearing, the pressure will just keep rising! the boat'll explode!

さき / 先 : "place of" (ex. place of stay, place of sending).

• 今 例の 画像 添付 メール の 送り先 から‌ 新しい メール が 届いた ん だ‌
 the thing is, now a new Email's arrived from the place-of-sending of that you-know-which image-attached Email = now the sender of that previous Email's sent another

けっきょく 結局 : "in the end".
• 結局 1時間 くらい しか 寝つけなかった
 in the end, (i) couldn't sleep anything more than about an hour

なおす / 直す: "re-(do)".
• つまんない、やり 直し
 boooriiiing, re-do (your joke)!

っぱなし:"remain(ed)" (= still). Origin: 放す "free" (as in "untouched")
• 立ち っぱなし だった
 (i) remained standing

きり / :
• 暗く て、ざわ ざわ 木 が ゆれて いる きり で、何だか淋しい 晩 でした
 dark (and unable to see), there being only the rustling of the shaking trees, it was a somewhat lonely night
• なんだ こいつ、まるっきり 俺 を 無視 し やがって‌
 what's with this guy, completely ignoring me...

ぞ: "i'll/we'll/he'll (do this)". Usually states a plan.
• 表 は だめ だ 裏 に 逃げる ぞ‌
 the front's no good, (my plan is that) (we)'ll escape (out) the back.
• 俺 は 人間 を やめる ぞ!‌
 "i'll quit human!" = i plan on giving up being a human!
• こ … こっち に 向かって 来る ぞ‌!‌
 "h-hither turn-comes (he) plans!" = he's planning on coming over here! (said about an enemy advancing to attack)

や: dialectal だ, or short for やれ (やる).
• 変 や = 変 だ
 (it's/he's) strange
• 電脳 都市 O EDO 808 て、有名 なん や (OEDO = 大江戸)
 Computer City Big Edo, that's famous

にする: decide (on/to do).
• あー 納豆 か クレープ 作る か 悩む…めんど くさい って 理由 で 納豆 に した
 "aah (eat) nattou? make crepes? i'm distressed... (my) reason being (my thinking that) it's a pain in the ass (to make crepes), (i) decided (on) nattou.
• セブ 島 に 留学 行く こと に した
 (i) decided (on) that (i'm) going to Cebu Island for a study abroad.

いったい / 一体: "what (kind of)/how in the world!"
• 君 は いったい 何 が 言い たい‌
 what in the world do you want to say? = what in the world are you trying to say?
• あれ は … 一体 何 なん だ!‌
 "that existance... what in the world what-what exists!" = just what the hell is that thing/guy?! tell me!

わけ / : "it/that means that"
• 遠い‌。けど 全然 届かない わけ じゃ ない‌
 (he's) far. but that doesn't mean (i) can't reach (him).
• ◯◯ は 死んだ わけ で は ない‌!
 that means ◯◯ isn't dead!

ぐらい (くらい) / 位 : "to the point that". Pronunciation is (as far as I know) literally up to the speaker. Same meaning as 程 in a lot of phrases.
[JP] その 程
• 初めて 笑 顔 を ほめられた の で、言葉 で は 表現 できない ぐらい の うれしさ が 込み 上げて き ました。
 being that (my) smile became complimented for the first time, my happiness was to the point where (i) can't express it in words = when my smile got complimented i was so happy i couldn't speak.

たびに / 旅に : every time. origin: 旅 "vojage, trip" + に (in a certain time period etc).
• 家 に 帰る たび に 誰 か が 私 の 部屋 に 入った 跡 が ある ん です。
 well, every time i come home there's traces (= signs) that someone's entered my room.

お, ご, み / 御 : "you(r), he, she, it, they"; basically notes that the word has something to do with someone else other than just yourself. Its usage drastically increases with pre-1950's speech. In rare occasions means nothing and is just a politeness-increaser (ex. to distinguish female speech from male speech; translated here as "honoured"). お is usually for Japanese words (and doesn't modernly use kanji), ご for Chinese (uses kanji), み for ancient words (so old the entire word has its own kanji, ex. み かど "emperor" in old times was 御 門 but now is 帝 as if み weren't a prefix).
• お 好み 焼き
 "your preference a grill(ed thing)" = name for a pancake of grilled noodles and "whatever else you, the customer, want on it"
• お 嫌い です か
 "you(r) dislike exists?" = do you hate it?
• 息子 さん お いくつ です か?
 "you(r) son person he/his how many exists?" = how old is your son?
• こんな に 暗い 晩 は、きっと お 月 様 が 御 病気 な の だろう
 oh such a dark (= unmoonlit) night, surely the (honored) Lord Moon (his) sickness being situation probably exists" = on such a dark night as this, it means the moon is sick isn't it? (that must be why it's not moonlit)
• お 見事。ご 褒美 に 教えて やる よ‌
 (i saw) a thing worthy of seeing (from you). i'll give you teaching (about) your reward = i'll give you the info you wanted, as your reward.

かける / : "start to". literal meaning is "hang on/from/off of".
• 俺 に 話し かける 花
 flowers that start to talk to me (we're "hanging a conversation onto someone")

おっしゃる / 仰る: you/he/she/it says. formal.
[JP] (あなた・そいつ) は 言う
• おっしゃる とおり です‌
 "you-says road exists" = it's just as you say.

あず (ず、ずに、あずに): "not (do)ing". the "not" form of て-form so just like て, you can't use it to end sentences unless the sentence isn't completely being said. ないで basically has the same meaning except that it can be used for commands (食べ ない で ください! "please (go) without eating!). する becomes せず(に).
• うち の 御 手洗、蓋 を 閉めず に 流した の 誰?
 (about) our bathroom, just who flushed without closing the (toilet) lid?
• 木 を 見て 森 を 見ず
 "tree seeing forest without seeing" = not seeing the forest for the trees (= looking only at details, not at the big picture/final product)
• みな さん、怒らず 聞いて ください
 "everyone, without becoming-angry, listen please" = please listen without getting angry
• 思わず 父 さん に どう する べき な の? って
 without thinking, i asked "just what should we do?"
• 何 も 気 付かず 何 も 語らず そして 何 も 考えない
 noticing nothing, saying nothing, and so not thinking anything.
• 敵 襲、守れず 申し 訳 ない です
 "enemy attack, without protecting-able no excuse exists" = (i'm) sorry (i) couldn't protect (you) during the raid
• コンビニ、ムカつく 客。ゴミ すてて → トイレ 行って → 立ち 読み して、何も 買わず に かえる 奴
 (at the) convenience store, an anger-inducing customer (type). the trash-tossing → toilet-going → standing and reading (magazines) → returning (home) without buying anything guy.

かわる / 代わる: replaces. 代わりに "in replacement; as a replacement".
• 君 は この 後 僕 の 代わり を 見つけ られる の か‌
 "you, after this, will (the situation be that you) are able to find my replacement huh" = will you ever be able to find someone to replace me (in your heart), i wonder?

といい‌ : it'd be good (for you) to
[JP] すれば いい‌
• 今 あげた 銃 を 拾って 使う と いい‌
 it'd be good (for you) to use the gun (i) just gave (you, so you can shoot me properly)

— といい‌ といい‌ (same thing but doubled up in the sentence) means "both" and is an N1 grammar point instead.

ばかり: "just (happened)", "(doing/being) nothing but". origin: 計る "measures" changed to はかり "a measurement", then ばかり.
• 赤い 花 ばかり で 白い 花 は 1つ も 咲かなかった
 being nothing but red flowers, not even 1 white flower (had) bloomed.
• この 町 に 来た ばかり の 友人 です‌
 a friend that's just arrived in this town.
• 私 も クズ ばかり の 兵 で ごめん ね
 i too only have scrap (= shit) soldiers, sorry!

として : as (a role)
[JP] と[役]して (?)
• 親 として 恥ずかしい‌
 as a parent (i'm) embarrassed (of you, my son!)

ほど / 程 : "so much that"
• 死ぬ ほど 恥ずかしい ネ
 so embarrassing (I could just) die, eh?

どおり (とおり) / 通り : (it's) just as. literally, "a (through-)road". i can't find any actual rule for when to say とおり versus どおり because i've seen both 言った どおり and 言った とおり.
• お 前 が さっき 俺 に 言った とおり だ‌
 "you a-bit-ago to i said road" = (it's) just as (what you) said to me a few minutes ago
• ここ まで は 予定 どおり‌
 "until here (was) pre-decided road" = until now it's been just as (we) predicted
• その とおり
 "that road" = exactly! (you're) completely correct
 
べき (べし, べい, べく) : should (do). べかる is べく ある condensed, べからず "is prohibited" (="you shouldn't do") is あず form.
• てめー は 地獄 へ 行く べき クズ‌
 you're trash that should go to hell
• すぐ に 応援 を 呼ぶ べき じゃ ない ん です か?
 shouldn't (we) immediately call for back-up?
• あんた は 見る べき じゃ ない もの を 見 過ぎ ちまってる‌‌
 you're unfortunately seeing way too many things you shouldn't be seeing

おける : locationally (= in, at, on etc)
• つまり あの 場 に おける 判断 に 間違い は なかった と…(omou)
 you mean, (your) decision locationally that situation was without a mistake, (you think)

ゆういち / 唯一 : "the one and only" (ex. "the only one out of the whole world"). note that this can also be a person's name.
• 完全 自動 化 された 生産 ライン の 中 で 唯一 の 有人 区画 だ‌
 among the completely automated production lines (this building's) the only one that has humans working in it
• お 姉 ちゃん は 唯一 の 家族 だ もん
 it's because sister is my one and only family (member)
• 唯一 恵まれ て い た の が …‌時間 な の よ‌
 the one and only thing i was (ever) given was time


さえ : "only if, if only!" 2. "even" regarding a huge thing
• お 前 ら さえ いなければ
 "ONLY if ye weren't existing!" = if only you guys were dead (I'd be happy)!
• 自分 が やって いる こと が 何 な の か 顧みる こと さえ 忘れて いた‌
 i was even forgetting what in the world i was doing
• しかも 核爆弾 と は 違い。‌体力 さえ 保て ば 際限なく 殺戮 を 続ける こと だって ありうる
• 町 に 帰って 来 さえ すれば 2人 の 命 は 私 が 保証 し ます‌
 only if (those) 2 people return to town will i guarentee their lives (= that the other townspeople won't kill them).
• 私 さえ もっと お 役 に 立てたら‌
 if only I were (= could be) more useful (to) you
• ボディー さえ あれば‌
 if (i) only had the body (said about a head he found)
• この 店 で は いかなる お 客 様 でも‌ 料金 さえ 払って いただければ 料理 を お 出し いたし ます‌
 this shop will serve food to any kind of customer at all if they just pay the money
• やって ない 犯罪 は 殺人 だけ‌。大人 の ヤクザ に さえ 恐れ られた‌
 the only crime (he) hadn't done was murder. (he) was only scared by adult yakuza.

のち / 後 : = 後で (あとで, formal). Same kanji, different pronunciation depending on formality.
• 今日 の 天気 は 曇り 後 晴れ‌。
 "today('s) weather is cloudy, later (on) sunny"

うちに / 内に: "within, inside" =while still
• お 昼 できた わ よ!冷めない 内 に 食べて
 "lunch's ready! (please) eat while it's still not cold!" = eat before it gets cold!

しき (じき, しい, じい, じ、い) : "like" (= as though). しき / じき are the archaic forms, じい has become じ modernly. it's exactly the same as the history of english: angel-lik(e) —> angelic. anger-li(ke) —> angerly; swede-lik(e) —> swede-lich —> swed-ish.
• これ しき
 "like this" = this amount, in this way (etc)
• 同 じ
 "like same" = similar, the same as
• 神 々 しい
 "god-god-like" = god-like, divine, heavenly
• 青 い
 "ocean-colour-like" = blue, green, blue-green

らしい(らしき): "being/exists/is like", but usually more easily translates to "seems like". origin: ある+しき.
• 私 の 姉 らしい エピソード
 "my being-like older sister episode" = that one time i seemed like an older sister
• あいつ らしい‌
 "being like that guy/thing" = that's just like him (ex. that's exactly something he'd say)
• それ らしき もの は 見えない
 "can't see being-like that thing" = (he) can't see any such thing
• 今日 女子 大[学校人]生 の 日 らしい
 "today is being like female university student's day" = seems like today (is) Female Uni-Student's Day
• どうやら 選択 の 余地 は ない らしい‌
 "being like (we) have no margin for choice" = it seems we have no choice
• お 前 らしい 答え だ な
 "being-like you answer exists, don't you agree?" = that answer's just like you, eh?
• まだ 終わって い ない らしい な‌
 "still being-like unended, don't you agree?" = seems like it still hasn't ended yet, huh

なんて (何て)、なんと (何と): なんと is more formal. origin: など (等) "etc", と言う "you say".
[JP] どの よう に
• あー!! また タバコ なんて 吸って 不良!! タバコ は 体 に 悪い の よ
 "ahh!! doing stuff like smoking tobacco again (you) delinquent!! tabacco's (a thing that's) bad for your body y'know!"
• あいつ が 誰 なんて 分からない‌。ただ 殺 された 職員、患者…全員 だ!‌
 "(i) don't know anything like who that (guy/thing) is. but the killed staff, patients... everyone (in this building's been killed by him)!"
• 真理亜 が 死んだ なんて 信じない 信じ たく ない‌
 (i) don't believe that Mariya died, don't want to believe
• なんて こと だ‌
 what the hell's going on

かとおもうと / かと思うと: just when (i) was thinking that...
• タバコ は 体 に 悪い の よ たま に 学校 来た か と 思う と すぐ 悪さ すんだ から!!
 "tabacco's (an action) bad for your body y'know!" just when (i) thought '(you do) come to school sometimes, huh' (you) immediately do bad stuff!!"

もん, もの / (物): 'cause (usually this is informal girl-speech, or childish talk). the kanji isn't used as far as i know. a lot of times they use it to show their excuse/reason for doing something seen as kinda shameful/bad/weird by another person.
• 「なに やって ん の よ コソコソ し ちゃって」「だってー 浦飯 くん コワイ ん だ もん」
 "what're you doing, completely sneaking around (like this)" "well it's 'cause Urameshi-kun's a scary (person)!"

もの (物、者)、やつ 奴: "the/that thing/person (called)". もの is formal (物 for objects, 者 for people) and やつ (奴) rude/informal. "この やつ" gets contracted into こいつ, in the same way we have そいつ and あいつ.
• 砂糖 って あの 甘い やつ か な
 sugar you say, that sweet stuff huh
• ボノボ の 群れ に おいて は‌ ほとんど 争い という もの が 見 られ ません‌

きれる  (きれ) / 切れる: "run out of", "all the way". you'll normally see 切れ "(i'm) out of" or 切れた "(i've) run out of".
• スタミナ 切れた!
 "(i've) run out of stamina!"
• タバコ 切れた 時
 that time when (my) tobacco ran out
• この まま じゃ 死んで も 死 に きれねー ぜ
 "at this rate (he) won't die all the way even if he dies" (= he won't die even if you kill him)
• 「日ペンの美子ちゃん」10年ぶり雑誌広告に復活 読み切り漫画も

はない / は無い: is nonexistant/without
• キサマ の 様 な ヤツ は 学校 に くる 必要 は ない!!
 "(we're) without the need for a bastard guy like you to come to school!" = there's no need for a guy like you to come to school, we don't want you here!"
• 母 の よう に なり たく は ない だろう?
 "wantless to become way-wise (your) mom (I) surmise?" = you don't want to end up like your mom, do you? (context: the mom is a dead coward)
• 「なぜ…?!」「そんな こと 貴様 が 知る 必要 は ない」
 "why...?!" "a bastard (like you) doesn't need to know (that kind of thing)"
• だが 逃げ は し ない‌
 "but (i) escape is do-without" = but (i) won't run away

ため / (為) : a reason. the kanji IS in use but most of the time hiragana is used.
• やつ ら は 猟 犬‌。獣 を 狩る ため の 獣 だ‌。
 "those guys(/things) are hunt-dogs. hunts beasts reason beasts exists." = those guys are hunting dogs. they're beasts for hunting beasts."
• こちら は 公安局 刑事課 です‌。現在 この 区画 は 安全 の ため に 立ち 入り が 制限 されて い ます‌。
 "this is (a message from) the public safety department('s) crime event section. current(ly) this boundary-drawn (area) is total safety's reason-wise standing and entering has become suppressed (and) limited" = this district's restricted right now for the sake of (your) safety, so you can't enter.
• 沼 を 調べる ため に は 飛び 込む しか ない‌
 in order to investigate a swamp you've no choice but to jump in

っぽい : "gives off the feeling/vibe of"
[JP] いっぱい みたいな
• アイコン は なんか の アニメ の 女 っぽい
 (their) icon gives off the feeling of some kind of anime (character) lady (= their icon is a photo of a real person)
• 人 質 の 子 が 限界 っぽい っす よ‌
 "human-pawn child limit gives off the feeling exists" = the hostage kid gives off the vibe that they're at their limit

だらけ : "riddled with". covered in something the speaker thinks is bad, no matter how society sees it (ex. you can be "riddled with love" if you think love is gross).
• 傷 だらけ で も 待って る
 despite riddled with wounds, (i'll) be waiting
• 「ばんわー、私 は 虫刺 され だらけ ーw」「そう いえば 私 は あざ だらけ ーw」
 "'evening! I'm riddled with bug-bites lol!" "now that you mention it, I'm riddled with bruises lol"
• いったい どこ が 安全 な の ? そこ ら 中 伏兵 だらけ じゃ ない !‌
 just where/how in the world is it safe?! isn't it riddled with ambushes all over there?!
• 船中 が 化け物 だらけ だ‌!!
 the inside of the boat's riddled with monsters! (zombie invasion on a ship)

ちがいない / 違いない : "it's definitely" (= no doubt). it's just 違う "is wrong/different" turned into a noun (違い something wrong/different) + ない "is-without, doesn't exist".
• 間 違い なく ワナ だ‌
 it's definitely a trap = it's a trap no doubt
• 気 を 付けろ!何か 武器 を 持って る に 違い ない‌!
 watch out! (he's) definitely carrying some kind of weapon! = he's carrying a weapon, no doubts about it!

—————— N4, N5 ——————

ていい / て良い: "it's fine/alright to" (= i'm/you're allowed to).
• 私、泣いて いい?
 is it fine if i cry?

できる / 出来る: "can (do/happen)", "finish(ed)".
• まずい ぞ!水中 で は 呼吸 が できない‌
 this is bad (you guys)! (one) can't breathe in (= under) water!

え、い : this verbform is used like a comma or semi-colon in formal / written language; it marks the end of a mini-sentence (clause, sentence within a sentence) but not of the full sentence.
[JP] て
• 草 は 豚 に 食われ 豚 は 人間 に 食われる‌
 grass becomes eaten by pigs; pigs become eaten by humans

やすい / (安い) : easy to. the verb is petrified so やすい doesn't turn into やすく やすかった etc.
• 読み やすい
 easy to read
• 我々 を 自分 の 戦い やすい 時 と 場所 に 誘き 出した か‌
 (he) invited (= lured) us out into a time and place that was easy for (him)self to fight us in, eh

おう (ろ、あろ、あろう): "(I'm) wondering", "(I) suppose" (= probably). The most common is である (であろう or でありましょう) shortened to だろ、だろう、でしょう.
• 道 路 途 は どう 使い 分ければ よい の でしょう か
 "oh 道, 路, 途, i'm wondering what's the good usage distinction (between them)?"
• 行こう!=行きましょう!
 "i'm wondering (if you'll) go (with)" = let's go!
• 「愛して る って」「うそ だろ w」
 "(he said he's) in love with (me)" "isn't (he) lying? haha!"
• バラ の 棘 は 痛かろう‌
 a rose's thorns hurt, don't they = hitting you with that rose probably hurt, huh.

やる (遣る)、あげる : (i, we) give/do for (someone else). やる is informal/rude; note that やる has the additional meanings of する but あげる doesn't.
• あんた が 好き だ から 一つ 教えて やる ぜ‌
 "(i) like you so i'll give you one teaching" = i like you so i'll teach you this one thing

てき / 的: "-wise" ("in terms of", "-related")
• 原爆 の 医学 的 影響
 "atomic bomb's medicine-wise effect" = the medical effects of the atomic bomb. the atomic bomb's effects in terms of medicine.
• スタミナ 的 に 1回 な の よ ぉ w
 "in stamina terms 1 round being situation!" = i've got enough stamina for one round (of battle in an RPG)!

ほう / 方 : "more". 方 が いい‌ "more good" means "better to". 方 literally means "side (one of two)".
• 見ない 方 が いい‌
 better (to) not look = you'd better not look.

えばならない (えばならん): "(i) have to". versus "i absolutely need to (or i'll be fired/killed", this is more like "i should/have to (for some reason)". origin: こと あれ は "exists the fact that", なる "becomes". "if the fact that (i do) x doesn't exist, things won't become (good)".
• なんとしても あの 男 を 消滅 させねば ならん‌
 (we) have to eliminate (= kill) that man at all costs
• 「一緒 に 来られ ません か?‌」「いや 私 は 公民 館 へ 行か なければ なり ません‌」
 "won't (you) come together (with us)?" "no, I have to go to the town hall".
• 私 は 生き なければ ならない‌
 i have to live (= stay alive)

か: marks doubt or "unknown".
• 誰 "who" –> 誰 か "unknown who" (= someone)
• あー 納豆 か クレープ 作る か 悩む…
 "aah nattou? make crepes? troubling..." = should i eat nattou or make crepes? this is distressing

どっち (どちら):"which (of two)". origin: どの みち (どの 道) "which road". どちら is more polite and can also refer to "which person".
• 「米と木どっちが欲しい?」「ゴールド」
 "grains (= crops) or trees: which (do you) want?" "gold"

くて: (い form of an い-verb+て) "being that x".
• タイミング 悪く て ごめん
 "timing being badly, sorry" = sorry that my timing is/was bad.

と: origin: short for とき (時) "when, (a specific) time" and ともに (共 に) "co-" (as in cohabitate, cooperate = "together, along with").
 This is frequently used with words, whether explicitly said or not, that show how a person thinks or talks about something. As roughly-translated examples: がたがた と "with (noisy) shaking", と 比べて "comparing (that) with", と 考えて "considering about (that)", と 思って "thinking about (that)", と 言って "(in) with saying (that)". The problem for learners is that the clarifying descriptive verb ("comparing, considering, saying...") isn't said when it's obvious/informal speech.
• 「君 と は 違う の だ よ」「良かった w」=君 と 比べて は
 "oh (i compared) with you (am) indeed is-different (thing) exists" "was-good lol" = "i'm different from you!" "i'm glad haha!". (w is chatspeak for わら 笑 "a laugh, smile")

もうしあげる / 申し上げる: literally "say up"; used to literally speak/pray/etc to people much higher-level than you, ex. gods.
• お 願い 申し 上げ ます‌
 (to you) a wish (I) say lifts = I say and lift up my wish to you (and hopefully you'll grant it, Oh Wise One).

すぎる / 過ぎる : too (much). original meaning is "surpass, go through" etc. so you just "surpassed the amount you should've done".
• ‌スウェーデン は 何でも 高 過ぎ ます
 Sweden is, above all else, too expensive.

なければ : "if don't/doesn't (do/happen/exist)". origin: a shortened なく あれ は (無く 有れ は). 50+ years ago you didn't have to say ば (it was only for further emphasis) but modernly it's a pretty set form.
• 絶望 を 知ら なけれ ば 希望 も ない‌
 if (you) don't know despair, hope too is nothing = if you don't know despair you don't know hope either.

な : "don't".
• 言う な!
 don't say (it)! don't speak!
• 慌て る な 怖がる な
 don't panic don't have fear
• 猟犬 の 嗅覚 を なめる な よ‌
 don't make light of a hunting dog's sense of smell

と : "whenever".
• 盆 が 近づく と 変 な 夢 を 見る 確率 が 上がる
 whenever Bon approaches the likelihood of (me) dreaming weird stuff rises. (Bon = Japanese 4th of July with the pretext of celebrating your dead relatives: BBQ parties, fireworks, family get-togethers etc)

もらう : get (got/gotten).
• 分かって もらえて うれしい わ‌
 "understanding getting is-glad" = glad to have gotten your understanding.
• 猫 から もらった ねずみ を すてて いる…
 "cat from got(ten) mouse throw is-in-status..." = (i'm) throwing away a mouse (i) got from a cat

そう : "looks (like)", as in "looks like he's too tired to play", "looks delicious!", "looks like summer's over" etc.
• 美味しそう!
 looks delicious!

かどうか : か (doubt marker) and どう "which way, how"). the "way" refers to the two possible ways "true or not true" (= yes/no).
• これ で 金原 が 人 を 殺せる やつ か どう か はっきり する‌
 with this we'll see if he's the kinda guy who can kill a person

かも、かもしれない / かも知れない : "could be" (= maybe). literally か (marks doubt) も (including) 知れない (can't know). like with all phrases, it's usually not written in kanji.
• 罠 かも しれない!‌
 could be a trap!
• 関係 ある かも しれない
 "could be a relation exists" = maybe there's some kind of connection between the two
• ハード じゃ なく て ソフト の 問題 かも…
 not being the hard(ware), could be a soft(ware) problem...
• けが で 動けない の かも‌
 "wounds existing can't move situation could be" = it could be that (he can't come out because he's) injured and can't move

にくい / 憎い : "difficult (for me)". origin is the shortened form of 憎らしい "hate-worthy", and 憎む "hates (something)", but 憎い apparently means lesser hate than 憎らしい.
• 大事 な 話 が ある の。電話 や オンライン じゃ 話し にくい。
 "big-matter being a talk (noteworthy!) exists situation. electric-talk & online (& stuff) locationally is talk-hate." = (i've) got something important to talk to (you) about. it's too difficult (= sensitive) to talk about it over the internet or a phone call.

てくる / (て来る) : "will come and (do/be)" or "(action) will come", which often translates to "gotten, has/had been, now" as shown below. opposite of ていく. (note to self to figure out later: くる have been; きた had been?)
• 今日かき氷作ってくる
 "today shaved-ice making will come (to me)" = today i'll make shaved ice
• 付いて くる な、どっか 行け!‌
 "attaching will come not (to me), somewhere go-away!" = don't stick with (me), get lost!
• 「連絡 わ」「した けど 返って こない」
 "oh, communication?" "i did but returning (communication) won't come (to me)" = "did you try contacting him?" "i did but he isn't gonna answer".
• 成育 で 聞いて こよう
 (i'll) come (to) and ask at the childcare (medical department) = i'll go and ask the doctors
• 冷えて きた ね‌
 "becoming cold has come (to us), don't you agree?" = it's gotten cold now, hasn't it (said while looking at snow)
• 弟 から 送られて きた
 "came becoming sent from (my) younger brother" = this has been sent (to me) from my brother
• この 世界 に 生まれて きた
 "in this society becoming-born has come (to me)" = (i've) been born in this society
• 何 人 も の 潜在 犯 を 撃って きた‌
 (i) came shooting countless latent criminals = i've been shooting
• お 母 さん は 九時 頃 帰って 来 ました
 "oh Mother, around 9(th)-hour came returning" = Mother had returned home at around 9 o'clock.
• 急 に し たく なって きた
 suddenly I want to do it now.
• お 前 から 電話 が かかって くる の は 悪い 兆候 だ‌
 a call that comes from YOU is a bad sign
• この 町 の 人間 たち は 皆 俺 を いじめて きた
 everyone in town's been bullying me
• 昨日 まで は 自分 の こと だけ 考えて 生きて きた‌
 until today (i'd) been living thinking only about myself (= living selfishly)
• お 酒 飲んで きた ねー?
 you've been (out) drinking alcohol? (or: you've come [home] after drinking alcohol?)

ていく (てゆく) / (て行く): "going to (do/be)". opposite of てくる.
• 食べて いく
 going to (go) eat
• 裸 で 生まれ、裸 で 死んで いく ん です
 "(everyone's) born naked, (and are) going to die naked"
• この 花 は 枯れ 行く のみ‌
 this flower is only going to wilt
• 俺 の 体 が 溶けて ゆく‌
 my body's going to melt
• なぜ 私 が 落ちて いく の を 止める‌
 why stop my going to fall = why stop me when i'm about to fall?
• 太陽 の 光 で 消えて いく ん だ‌
 the thing is, it's going to be erased/killed by the sun's light

にいく / に行く: "going to (be)".
• そう か もう 嫁 に いく 歳 な の か 。‌
 is that so. (she's) already going to be wife-age huh. = oh, she's getting to be that age, isn't she.

な: the command "(verb) not!". this is ONLY when after the う-form of an action-verb. when after an opinion-verb, noun or something else it has the "being" meaning below". when after a noun and し it's short for しなさい "please do", as in 安心 しな(さい) "please don't worry" (in other dialects な is ね: 安心 しね).
[JP] しないで(=命令)
• 動く な
 "move not!"
• ふ、年 上 を なめる な よ
 "fu, year above lick not!" = heh, don't take a person who's older than you lightly!

な: "being" (makes descriptions for stuff that can change or is according to opinion, versus stuff that's built-in). origin is possibly に あ(る) "in exist(ing)". If it comes after a word that's already a description, or comes at the end of a sentence, it sort of emphasizes that what was just said is the speaker/writer's opinion and thus it often suggests to the listener/reader that they should respond: "I think this, but what's the truth? What do you think?".
• 馬鹿 な 話 だ versus 馬鹿 の 話 だ
 "a foolish (in my opinion) story exists" = "it's a stupid story", versus "a story (restricted to) a fool exists" = "only an idiot would say that. you're stupid."
• 賢明 な 判断 だ
 "a wise decision." (= his opinion on her decision)
• 余計 な 事 を 言う な
 "say not outside-of-necessary things!" = don't say shit (that I think) will mess everything up!
• 面白い な
 "is interesting (to me personally)" = interesting, isn't it! (what do you think?)

— Note that your textbook/dictionary will probably say certain words are simply "always" used with な; it may call them "な-words" or something similar. This isn't really true, it's just for convenience's sake because words like "wise (choice), fun (topic)" are almost always someone's opinion.

な: don't (do it!)
[JP]: は ダメ
• いい か 危ねー から 道路 に 飛び 出す な よ
 "listen up. since it's dangerous, don't jump out into the road (where cars drive by)!"
• よし その まま 目 を 離す な‌
 "good, that same-state eyes part not!" = good, just keep at it and don't lose sight of (him)!

ね, な, のう: "i agree", "do you agree?". There's no real difference between the three options, it's just that sound-changes occured according to dialect. のう is older and thus in anime is usually used by grandparents or people talking archaically. ね is used most often.
• いつも 一人 で 大変 だ ねぇ
 "always being alone is hard, do you agree?" = being alone is hard, isn't it. Note that "being alone" often just means ex. "working without help", not that you're literally alone 24/7.
• また 連絡 ください ね
 "again contact give me, do you agree?" = please contact me again! of course it's up to you though. 連絡 is used for all kinds of contact, ex. visiting someone's house or phoning someone.
• すぐ ドア 開けます ね
 "the doors are about to open, do you agree?" = hey, the doors are opening, pay attention!
• ホーント あなた って お 洗濯 が 好き な の ね
 "reaally you have a liking for (doing) laundry, do you agree?" = you really like doing laundry don't you!

か : marks doubt. often easily translates to "huh".
• そっか(=informal of そう です か or さよう で ござい ます か
 "that way huh" = is that so. I see.
• できる か どう か 分からない
 "can be done huh, which way huh, (i) don't know" = can (i) do it or not? i don't know. "どう which way, how" refers to the two possible ways "yes or no".

かい: か but always marks a rhetorical or patronizing question (usually? always?) to another person. the same sort of thing as when we write questions that don't end in question marks "well, aren't you blind." versus "well, aren't you blind?".
• できる かい?
 "can it be done." = can you do it? (I already know you can)
• 事件 かい
 "a case." = it's already obvious to me that it's a case
• 理不尽 だ と 思う かい‌
 you're thinking it's crazy. (i can already tell)
• 今日 も また 優雅 に 個室 で ランチ かい ?‌
 so today you're eating lunch in your solitary room again. (i walked in on you doing it just now)
• 悲しい と は 思わない かい‌
 don't (you) think it's sad.

かな: か ("marks doubt") and sentence-ender ね ("I think"). Meaning that the speaker/writer's wondering to themselves. This is also be used to more subtly ask for corrections "I wonder if this is right...?" (someone else butts in) "No it's not!!".
• 大丈夫 か な
 "(will this/it/they be) okay, I wonder...
• 私 の 考え 方 間 違って る か な?‌
 "my thought-way being-mistaken I wonder?" "is my way of thinking wrong, I wonder?"
• 「課長、本当 に ゲイ じゃ ない の か な?」「まあ、本人 が 違う って 言って る し…」
 "i'm wondering if the section chief 'really' isn't gay?" "well, (since) the person himself's been saying "(that's) incorrect!" = well, since he himself keeps claiming it's not true (= that he isn't gay)...

まで / (迄): until, "(up) to" as in "she's dressed (up) to the nines", "he's sunk (up) to his knees". the kanji appears in job searches, ex. "if you work the shift from 21:00 until 03:00 you'll earn 1,000 yen more".
• うるせー オレ は 勝つ まで やる ぞ
 "noisyyy, until I win (I'll) do (it)!" = shuddap, i'll keep on doing it until i win!
• ワナ だ!ワナ まで アナクロ[ニズム] だ な‌
 "trap situationally-exists!" (*sees that it's a torture-chamber trap*) "trap until anachronism situationally-exists being" = it's a trap! (they're) anachronic up to their traps, huh. (anachronism = from the wrong/an archaic time period)

が: "note that". at times it most easily translates to capslock.
• わが 国 = 私 が 国
 "(note that) i country" = my country
• 目 が 痛い
 "(note that) eye is-pain" = (my) eyes hurt
• あれ が あんた の 判断 だった‌
 "note that that-existance thy decision existed" = THAT was your decision, not mine.
• 自分 で 脱いだ ほう が よろしい で しょう か?それとも ◯◯さま が?
 "is the side of (me) disrobing by (note that my)self good, (I) wonder? or is (note that) LORD ___'S?" = is it better if I myself take my clothes off, or better if Lord ___ takes them off for me?".
• 敵 が 来る!
 (note that) the ENEMY will arrive!
• 腹 が 減った
 "(note that) stomach became-shrunk" = i'm hungry
• 物 分かり が 早い わ ね
 "oh, (note that) object-understanding is-fast, don't you think?" = (you're) sure quick to catch on, aren'cha?
• おっぱい!何故 目覚めたら そこ に おっぱい が…!
 "breasts! why, when I open my eyes, are there (note that) BREASTS (in front of my face)...!?"
• ここ の セリフ が 読者 に 伝わり づらい
 "(note that) this place's line of dialogue is hard to transmit (its meanings) to the readers" = the dialogue here won't get your message across.

の / (之, ノ): "about"; marks description or ownership. the kanji show up in anime character names, pre-WWII stuff etc but otherwise isn't in daily use. ノ is just katakana ノ but is sometimes used like a kanji.
[JP]: に 限って
• 目 の 悪い ひと
 "is-bad about eyes people" = people with bad eyes
• 勘 の いい やつ
 "is-good guy/thing about intution" = a guy with a good intuition
• お前 は 今 まで 食った パン の 枚 数 を 覚えて いる の か‌
 "(question) about remembering piece number (about) oh you, until-now eaten bread" = do you remember the number of pieces (= slices) of bread you've eaten (in your life) until now?
• 適切 な 漢字 の ない 場合
 "not-exists situation (about) fitting kanji" = a situation where there is no fitting kanji
• 暑い 日 の 午後 メール が 来た
 "afternoon Email arrived (about) hot day" = (on a) hot day's afternoon an email arrived
• 君 の 事
 "matters/events (about) you" = things to do with you
• 情報 の 偽物
 "forgery (about) information" = false info
• 竹中 の ヤロー
 "bastard (about) Takenaka" = Takenaka, that/you bastard!
• 痛い の ヤダ
 "dislike (about) is-pain" = i don't like stuff that hurts!
• 部下 へ の セク ハラ
 "sex(ual) hara(ssment) (about) towards a sub-section (person)" = sexual harassment directed towards a subordinate
• 終わり の 無い 夜
 "non-existing night (about) an end" = an endless night
• 全 宇宙 の 敵
 "enemy (about) all space" = an enemy to all spacekind
• 喧嘩 の 弱い 優等 生
 "weak (about) argument honors student" = an honors student bad at arguing. 生 at the end of a word is usually short for 生徒 "gradeschool student" or 学生 "university student". 喧嘩 usually more naturally translates to "fight" (but it's a mostly verbal fight).
• 体温 の ない 吸血鬼 の 冷たい 涙
 "icy-cold tears (about) blood-suck-demon non-existing (about) body-warmth" = the cold tears of a warmthless vampire.

の (ん): used like our "the thing is, so, well, (it's) just (that)" when giving explanations, and "is it that...? or what? just (where/how/who)?" when asking for explanations.
• いったい 誰 と 話し て た ん だ‌
 so just who in the world was (he) speaking with?
• 何 が あった の? = 何 が あった ん です か?‌
 "so, just what happened?" = what's up? why do you seem sad? (etc)
• 生きて た の か
 so (you) were alive?
• どこ に いる ん だ‌
 so just where is (he)?
• 「英雄 に なり たい の です か」「俺 は 逃げる の が 嫌 な だけ です」
 "so, you want to become a hero or what?" "(No,) it's just that i hate running away."
• どこ に ある ん だ?
 just where is it? (tell me!)
• 外国 人 は どんな 仕事 を やって も いい の か?答え は NO です
 is it that foreigners can do any type of work (they want)? the answer is NO.
• お 前 ら が 悪い ん だ
 "the thing is, you guys're bad" (that's why I'm gonna kill you now)
• 頭 痛い のに 寝れない ん だ ぉ お
 though (my) head hurts, the thing is i can't sleep (so i'm still online)
• 落ち 着いて あなた を 助け に 来た の よ‌
 "(please) calm down! the thing is, we came to save you!
• 「ばんわー、私 は 虫刺 され だらけ ーw」「富士 の 樹 海 で も いった の?」
 "(good) evening, I'm covered in bug-bites haha" "so did you walk around in Fuji's sea of trees or what?

の / 之: Sometimes shortened to ん, as in もの —> もん "thing", 彼 の うち —> 彼 ん ち "his house(hold)".
• な の に
 that being the case, being that kind of (person), etc.
• テープ の 跡 だ
 "tape situation vestige exists" = it's the remains of tape (sticky gunk left over on an object after you've removed tape from it)
• 顔 の 無い 少年
 "face situation is-without few-years-[male]" = the faceless boy
• 俺 別に あんた に 意地悪 する つもり は なかった ん だ けど さ、気 が 変わった わ‌
 well, i didn't really have an(y) intention of being mean to you, but (my) mood's changed.
• まあ 行って 確かめる の が 一番 だろう な‌
 "well, going (and) makes-sure situation (noteworthy!) number-one situationally (i) suppose being" = well, going (yourself) to confirm (it) is probably best, huh.
• 生き 残った の は 我々 3 人 だけ だ‌
 "alive remained situation is us 3 people only exists" = only we 3 have survived
• 米 軍 が 調査 を して いる の は ね、たぶん 米 軍 も 原爆 症 を 知らなかった の でしょう
 (that) situation of american soldiers investigating was, well, probably (just) that the american soldiers too didn't know about the atom bomb (= radiation) sickness.

のに : "(even) though". It's simply の "the thing is" and に "-wise" put together and used "only" in situations where the two phrases contradict each other.
• お 腹 が 空いて いる のに‌ 食事 抜き です か‌
 even though your stomach's empty it's (a day) without meals? = you're not eating today, even though you're hungry?
• 飲んで 帰って きた の に まだ バック アップ が 終わらない の か…
 even though I've (gone out and) come back home from drinking, the back-up's still not finished yet huh...
• 世間 は 春 だ と いう の に、俺 の 心 は 冬 の まま か…
 even though the world (is in) spring, it's still winter in my heart huh...
• うまい。外国人 な の に 大した もん だ ね
 even though (they're) a foreigner, their (japanese) cooking is a big deal (= is great), don't you agree?
• 誰か を 守る 仕事 だった はず な の に な‌
 even though it should've been a job that protects someone, (it's actually work where i just keep shooting people; talking about policework)
• 嫌い なら 見 なけれ ば いい のに なあ。
 even though if (you) don't like it it'd be better to not look at it, eh = "don't like don't read" but you keep reading!
• 頭 痛い のに 寝れない ん だ ぉ お
 even though (my) head hurts, the thing is i can't sleep (so i'm still online right now)

— Note that the "kanji" form of くのいち (くノ一) "female ninja" is actually in origin the kanji for 女 broken up into its parts (you first write く, then ノ then 一 to write 女), it's not actually the word の.
— こ, そ, あ anciently were standalone nouns so この、その、あの actually already have の attached, so we don't double it up and say このの.

の : "situation" (事態 etc), or replaces any noun or phrase (either that you've already said or are going to say later on) so you don't have to say it twice.
• 課長、本当 に ゲイ じゃ ない の か な?
 = ゲイ じゃ ない [課長/事態] か な?
 "i'm wondering if the section chief 'really' isn't (a) gay [section chief/situation]?" = I wonder if the section chief "really" isn't gay? isn't the situation that he really IS gay?
• 海 の 見える の は、どちら 側 です(?)
 = 見える [側/事態] は、どちら 側 です
"a sea-viewable [side/situation] is which side?" = from which side (of the train) can (we) see the sea?
• 誰か を 守る 仕事 だった はず な の に な‌
 = はず な [仕事/事態] に な‌
 "despite that (this) [work/situation] should've been work that protects someone..."
• タバコ は 体 に 悪い の よ
 = 体 に 悪い [事態]
 "tobacco is [a situation] bad in the body!" = tobacco's bad for you!
• お 洗濯 が 好き な の ね
 = 好き な [事態]
 "laundry is a like(d) [situation], eh?" = (you) sure seem to like doing laundry.
• 来る の は 明日 の はず…
• 来る [電車/事態] は 明日 [事態] はず…
 "arriving [train/situation] is tomorrow [situation] should've... = (the train's) arrival should've been tomorrow (not today)!"
• こんな 所 に いた の か!
 = いた [事態]
 "this-kind-of location-wise existed [situation] huh!" = so (you) were in this kind of place, were you!

あれる : becomes (by another person/thing, compared to by the speaker themselves etc)
[JP]: (場合) に なる
• 草 は 豚 に 食われ 豚 は 人間 に 食われる‌
 grass becomes eaten by pigs; pigs become eaten by humans
• 悪い 奴 が 誰 か に 消されて いる
 bad guys('re) becoming erased by someone = someone's killing bad guys
• 午前 4 時 ちょうど に 死体 が 発見 された‌
 at exactly 4 o'clock the dead body became discovered
• もし あいつ に バレたら 殺される ぜ、お 前
 "if you're found out by him you'll become killed! = if he discovers your plan he'll kill you!
• 帰れ! って 言われた から 帰る ん だ よ
 "the thing is, 'go home!' became said (to me) so i'm goin' home!" = well, someone told me to go home so I'm going home!
• みんな で 作り 上げた ギルド じゃ ない か… どうして 簡単 に 捨て られる ん だ よ
 "isn't (this the) guild everyone made to completion (together)! how can (it become so) easily thrown away!"
• 破棄 された 地下 鉄 路線 です‌
 "broken-abandon became underground iron pathway exists" = it's a railroad that broke and became abandoned
• 俺 は あんた を 止め られない よ
 "you can't become stopped by me" = well I certainly can't stop you (from doing something stupid)
• 北 朝鮮 から ミサイル が 発射 された 模様 です
 "north korea from missile fire-out became sign exists" = there's signs that a missile's become fired (towards japan) by north korea.
• 実 は 男 です。って バラ したら、多分 オコ られる だろ ー ね
 'truth is, (i'm) a guy.' if (i) revealed that, (he'd) probably become angry, eh?" = if I revealed I'm a guy (and not a girl) he'd probably get pissed at me, wouldn't he?

あせる: lets, makes (= forces to). as in "I'll let you taste fear = I'll make you taste fear". 見る gets just せる.
[JP]: 場合 する
• 僕 を 失望 させる な よ
 don't let/make me lose hope = don't ruin my expectations
• 君 は 僕 を 失望 させた‌
 you forced/let me lose hope = you dashed my hopes
• さ 君 の 全て を 見せて‌
 "come now, let/make (me) see your everything" = show me all of yourself
• そう 思わ せたい 誰か
 "that-way think-force-want someone" = someone who wants to make (us) think that way
• 外 に 出る なら せめて 服 を 着せて くれない か
 if (we're) going outside, won't (you) at least let me put some clothes on?
• キス させて くれ、キス!
 "(please) (you permiss and give me) a kiss, a kiss!" = please let me kiss you!
• 洋平 君、もう この 勝負 やめ させて?
 "Shouhei-kun, can't you force this battle (between 2 other people) to stop?" = can't you make them stop?
• 僕 は この ため に‌ 両親 を 死な せて しまった‌
 i was forced to kill my parents due to this(?)
• それ で は 聞かせて ください‌。あなた の お 友達 が どの よう な 悩み を 抱えて いる の か‌
 well then please let me ask. what kind of worries is your friend holding?
• あれ は 吐かせる ため に やった こと‌
 that was a thing (i) did in order to make (him) spit out (the truth)
• キャプテン 泣かせる ぜ
 (i) plan to make the (enemy) captain cry = let's crush the enemy captain!

— To remember the difference between these two: あれる has なる ("become")'s なれ —> あれ sound, while あせる has する ("causes, does")'s せ sound.

まま : "while still". comes after た/だ "completed action" form.
• お 嬢 ちゃん に は 黙った まま 行く の か‌
 "while still being silent to (the) Daughter (you'll) go situation, huh" = so you're going to leave without saying anything to her, huh
• 死体 は ドローン に 生きた まま 解剖 された
 the dead body became dissected by the drone while (the "dead" body was) still alive
• お 兄 ちゃん こそ 大丈夫? ◯◯ 抱えた まま 走って... 疲れて ない の?
 brother, are YOU okay? running while holding (name)... aren't you tired?
• トロッコ は 泥 だらけ に なった まま、薄 明るい 中 に 並んで いる
 still covered in mud, the carts were lined up in a row in the pale (evening) light
• こんな ところ で 死に たく ない。何も 分からない まま で‌
 (i) don't want to die at this point in time. while still knowing nothing (about what's going on)
• 箱 を 持った まま 小さい 鼾 を たて て 眠り 始め ました
 while still holding the box, letting out small snores (she) started to sleep

しまう (ちまう、ちゃう、じゃう、じまう): "screw up" (= accidentally, unfortunately). which way you say it depends on formality level and dialect, there's a ton of variations so eventually you'll just recognize new forms by context.
[JP]: わざと じゃ ない、残念 だ が
• しまった!
 "(I've) screwed up!" = shit!
• 眠 過ぎ ちゃった…
 "(I) screwed up (and) over-slept..."
• 慣れて しまった
 "screwed up (and) become-used-to" = we've unfortunately gotten used to it (context: to a job where you kill people)
• バス に 間 に 合わない!遅刻 し ちゃう!
 "i won't be on time to the bus! i'll screw up (and) become late!"
• ああ… ますます お 兄 ちゃん を 起こらせ ちゃった わ
 "aah... (he's) screwed up (and) made Brother more and more angry" = he keeps screwing up and making him madder and madder
• こう なっちまったら = なって しまったら
 "this way become screw-up if/when" = if things've gotten all screwed up and become like this (anyway, then I'll change my plans)
• 森 さん どこ 行っちゃった ん で しょう?
 "(so) where'd Mr. Forest (go off to, I) wonder?". Mr. Forest "screwed up the plan" and got separated from the group (they were supposed to stick together).
• 急 が ない と 跡 が 消え ちゃう…‌
 "urge without when traces screw-up erase" = (if we) don't hurry, (his) traces (= sled tracks, footsteps etc) will be completely erased (by the falling snow)
• 影 も 残さ ず 消し ちまった
 including his shadow nothing was left = not even his shadow remained (there was no trace of him)
• 止めて しまい たい と 思う
 (i) want to completely stop
• これ 以上 薄く なったら 消え ちゃう ヨ ォォオオォ
 if it gets any thinner than this it'll completely disappeaaaaaaar!
• 銃 を 分解 し ちまった‌
 (he) completely dismantled the gun

しまう (ちまう、ちゃう、じゃう、じまう): "completely; put it away" (ex. put food into the fridge). origin is "if you put it away it means you're completely done with it", etc.
• そう だ。壊して しまえ。恐れ も 悲しみ も 愛 も 全て。
 "(in) that way (it) exists. destroy and put it away" = that's right. destroy it all. including fear, including sadness, including love, everything."
• もう お しまい だ
 "already a completion exists" = shit, this is the end(, I'm gonna die). i've screwed-up big time.
• なぜ みんな 早く 不自由 な 肉体 を 捨て て しまわない の か‌
 why is it that people don't just completely quickly throw away their bodies of flesh?

はず: ought (= should've)
• 2人 は 仲間 に なる はず だった の に…
 "though (those) two people should've become friends (they haven't, instead they're battling in front of the whole school)"
• 分かって る だろう‌。誰 でも 知って る はず だ‌
 (you) already know, don't you? anyone at all oughtta know it. = it should be obvious to anyone.

も: "including (all)". can mean the speaker/writer thinks it's an impressive, noteworthy or huge amount. (sorry, have to think about a better way to explain it for "what, which, who...." words)
[JP]: を 含めって、こんなに
• どの 写真 も 素敵!
 "which photo (including all) wonderful!" = each and every photo is beautiful!
• そう だ。壊して しまえ。恐れ も 悲しみ も 愛 も 全て。
 "that's right. destroy it all. including fear, including sadness, including love, everything." (= destroy even sadness, even love, etc.)
• 就職 も 結婚 も 望み なんか ありゃ し ねえ‌ = あれ は し ない
 "obtain-work including become-married including hopes any kind of existance (among other things) is without" = "stuff like finding work, getting married, I don't have any kind of hopes (left at all)".
• こら こら ラグビー じゃ ない ん だ ぞ!ドリブル も 知らない の か?!
 "hey hey, (this) isn't rugby y'know! including "dribble" is an unknown thing (to you)?!" = so you don't even know how to dribble?!
• 夢 と いって も
 "including when (you) say dream" = even (if you) say (it's a) dream
• 私 も 同じ です。戦 で 全て を 失い ました。
 "including i the same (situation) exists. in (the) war (i) lost everything." = i'm the same as (you). i too lost everything thanks to the war.
• 「ばんわー、私 は 虫刺 され だらけ ーw」「富士 の 樹 海 で も いった の?」
 "'evening, I'm covered in bug-bites lol" "so (you) went including at Fuji's tree-sea?" = so did you even walk around in Fuji's vast forest of huge old trees?
• 今日 も また 優雅 に 個室 で ランチ かい ?‌
 this-day including again soldary-wise single-room locationally lunch eh? = so today you're eating lunch in your solitary room again, eh?
• 英 語 苦手。我 は 日本 人。国 語 も 苦手。で も 日本 人。 
 "(i) suck (at) english language. i'm japanese. (i) suck (at my) nation's language too. situation including (that i'm) japanese" = it's obvious i suck at english, I'm japanese! but i suck at japanese too, even though i'm japanese.

という (と、といふ、って、っつ、っつって) / と言う: "you say, that said". Clarifies names/definitions and is used to quote stuff. The kanji isn't normally used because they consider it a phrase and thus not us literally speaking the name. っつ is Tokyo-casual 言う, 言ふ is the archaic original (modern dialectal).
• 「さ 始めよう か‌」「始める って 何 を‌」
 "well, shall (we) start?" "start you say, (start) what?"
• 「セブ 島 に 留学 行く こと に した」「セブ 島 って どこ?」
 "(i) decided that (i'm) going to Cebu Island for a study abroad" "Cebu Island you say, where('s that)?"
• あいつ って 誰 なん です か?
 'that guy' you say, just what (kind of person is he)?
• ◯◯ と 言い ます
 "◯◯ you say (when you say my name)" = I'm (called) ◯◯.
• デビル マン と いう 漫画
 "devil man you say manga" = a/the manga called Devilman
• なん だ って?! = なん だ と?!= 何 だ と 言う?!
 "what exists you say?!" = WHAT did you just say?!!
• 実 は 男 です。って バラ したら、多分 オコ られる だろ ー ね
 'truth is, (i'm) a guy.' if (i) revealed that, (he'd) probably become (REALLY) angry (i suppose), eh?"
• 暗い と いふ 意味 で ある
 (it's) meaning is "dark, unable to see"

こむ / 込む: into.
• 沼 を 調べる ため に は 飛び 込む しか ない‌
 in order to investigate a swamp you've no choice but to jump in
• ここ まで 攻め 込んで 来た 敵 プレイヤー は いな かった けど な
 "enemy players (who) came attack(ing)-into until this place didn't exist though, huh" = though there weren't ever any enemy players who (managed to) invade all the way here (at level 10 of my guild).

おく / 置く:
• 俺 たち は この 世 に おいて 二人 で 一人‌
 

ておく(とく) / て置く: "just (do it for) now". this verb's original meaning is "put". the e of "te" gets eaten in casual speech, so ex. て おけ would be とけ.
• 覚悟 して おけ
 just prepare for now (you can't do anything else)
• 止めとけ
 "just stop now!" = just stop already!!
• ほっとけ! = ほっとく おけ!
 "just drop it for now!" = just drop it! just leave (it/them) alone!
• あの 時 … ◯◯ を 殺して おけば よかった‌
 "yonder time... if (i'd've) just killed ◯◯ it (would've been) good" = i should've just killed him back then.
• 僕 の 背 に 捕まって おいで‌
 just hold on to my back for now (please! don't let go so i drop you during the piggyback ride!)
• ここ テスト に 出す から ちゃんと 覚えて おく の よ
 this here will come out (= be on) the test so just remember it properly for now!

しか: anything more than (= only)
• 逃げろ ! 今 しか ない !‌
 "escape! now anything more than is-without!" = run away! we can't do anything else right now!
• 結局 1時間 くらい しか 寝つけなかった
 in the end, (i) couldn't sleep (for) anything more than about an hour
• まだ 名前 しか 知らない
 "still front-name anything more than don't know" = (we) still don't know anything more than (his) forename
• あんた に しか 聞こえん よ‌
 "anything more than you can('t) hear (it)" = no one else but you can hear it.
• ワタシ ニホンゴ シカ ワカリマセン
 "i don't understand anything more than japanese" = i only understand japanese
• 私 に しか でき ない 仕事 が きっと ある
 "definitely exists work that anything more than I can't do" = there's definitely work out there that only I can do
• たった 50 人 しか いない
 "only not existing any more than 50 humans" = there's only 50 people
• 一 回 しか 行けない
 "anything more than one time can't go" = (I) can only do it once
• ここ しか 他 に ない‌
 there's noplace else than this
• 家 に いる しか ない
 there's nothing else to do than be (= stay) in the house = we'll just have to stay in the house
• 死 を 待つ しか ない
 there's nothing else (to do) but wait for death
• 私はね、タバコ、ビール、ゲーム に しか お 金 使って ない よ
 well y'know, it's just that i don't use (my) money for anything other than tobacco, beer and games.

なにか (なんか) / 何か: "in some way", translating to "kinda, any/some (kind of)". origin is 何 "thing" か "doubt(ful/unknown type)". the full line-up: こんな そんな あんな どんな なんか.
• なんか 変 だろう?
 "in some way strange huh?" = kinda strange, innit?
• 気 を 付けろ!何か 武器 を 持って る に 違い ない‌!
 watch out! (he's) definitely carrying some kind of weapon!
• なにか 用 です か?
 "some kind of use exists?" = can i help you? what's up?
• 何か 言い たい こと は ?‌
 "some kind of say-want event?" = have anything you want to say?
• 今回 も 裏 に 何か ある
 "in this time around too some kind of behind-scene exists" = there's something going on behind the scenes this time too
• ネズミ なんか じゃ ない
 "rat some kind of situationally is-not" = it's not some rat! (it's a demon!)

に : "-wise", ex. "time-wise". Explicitly turns words into adverbs ("whom, where, whither, when, how, why").
• 馬鹿 に する
 "moron-wise cause" = making (me) look like an idiot
• 月曜 日 に 会い ましょう
 "moon-weekday('s) day-wise (we) should meet" = let's meet on Monday

に : Short for "ため に" (reason-wise).
• 食べ [ため]に 行く
 "goes [reason-wise] eat" = goes in order to eat
• 落ち 着いて あなた を 助け [ため]に 来た の よ‌
 "(please) calm down, (we) thee came to save (reason)!" = calm down, we came to save you!

だけ : "nothing more than", just.
• できる だけ
 "nothing more than can be done" = (do) as much as possible
• やる だけ は やって みよう
 "nothing more than do, let's try doing" = let's just try doing what we can
• 苦しい だけ が 人生 だ
 human life is nothing more than suffering

は (わ) : oh.
• 知って る わ!
 oh, i (already) know!
• ちな 私 の スリー サイズ は 秘密
 oh btw my three size(s), (they're) a secret. (ちな is short for ちなみに "by the way")
• 犬 は 犬
 oh, dogs (are) dogs
• 英 語 苦手。我 は 日本 人。
 i suck at english. (oh,) i'm japanese (so that's obvious)

より : under (in comparisions).
• 役目 より 正義 を 優先 できた‌
 "duty under justice (affected by) chose were-able" = you managed to chose justice over duty.
• 女 より アニメ を 選んだ 男
 "woman under anime (affected by) chose man" = a man who chose anime over women

より : "travelling from". also used when writing "from (name)" on letters (the letter travelled from them to you), and starting events (travelling from a point in time until another point in time).
• エロイカ より 愛 を こめて
 "Eroika travelling-from love (affected-with) puts in" = from Eroika with love.
• 東 京 より 仙台 へ
 "east-capital travelling-from Sendai towards" = going from Tokyo towards Sendai

ている (てる, てゐる) / て居る: in (the act/state). ておる (same kanji) is dialectal. Note that ています can be shortened to てます, ていっす etc.
• やっぱり 怒って ます か?‌
 as (I) thought, (you're currently) angry?
• あらゆる 電波 が 遮断 されて る
 each and every electric(/internet) wave is (currently) being blocked out
• いったい 誰 と 話し て た ん だ‌
 just who in the world was (he) speaking with?
• んなこた~分かってるっての!‌
• やめて ー!一人 で 笑って る 俺 を 見ない で w
 "stooop! (go) without looking at me who's laughing alone!" = don't look at me while i'm laughing here alone (in my room at my computer screen)!"

よう (やう) / 様 : way (manner). ex. ようにする "cause (that) way" = ensure that.
• まるで ドミノ 倒し の よう に ね‌
 "completely domino fall's manner-wise" = completely like the fall of a domino, isn't it.
• 「笑わない よう に する の が 大変 だった‌」「ですよねー」
 ensuring i didn't laugh was really difficult = it was hard to keep a straight face. "i know, right?"
• 母 の よう に なり たく は ない だろう?
 "wantless to become way-wise (your) mom (I) surmise?" = you don't want to end up like your mom, do you? (context: the mom is a dead coward)
• 誰 か の 人生 の 一部 に なれる よう 頑張り ます
 (i'll) keep working at ensuring that (i) can become a part of someone's (human way of) life. (said by a member of a budding 2-person band)
• 雪 が 解ける よう に 消えて いく‌
 snow melts manner-wise going to disappear = (you're) going to die just like how the snow melts
• 子供 の やう に 大きい 匙 で 食べた
 "child's manner-wise, is-big spoon using ate" = ate (the rice porridge) like a child (and) with a big spoon
• 煙 の よう に 藪垣 の 方 へ 消えて 行って しまい ました
 (the frog) went and completely disappeared, like smoke, towards the hedge

てある / て在る(?) : has been (done). note that when before a noun, it can mean ある's normal "a certain", as in ローマ に 行って ある 人物 に 会う "going to rome to meet a certain person".
• 新聞 に 書いて ある
 (it)'s been written in the newspaper (that....)
• 今 の チャット は ログ を 取って ある な‌
 hey, the chat from (just) now's been logged (down), hasn't it?
• 洞窟 壁画 の 文字 に 書いて ある‌
• そこ の 壁 に 斧 が 飾って ある だろう
 on that wall there's an axe that's been decorating (the wall), isn't there?

なら : if (it's)
• 文句 が ある なら はっきり 言え‌
 if (you) have complaints, say it straight out!
• ホント に ワナ なら 危険 です‌
 "REAL-LY a trap if/when danger situationally-exists" = if it's REALLY a trap, it's dangerous (to go in there!)

ら (等), たち (達), ども (供) : "group of" = pluralizes something. ら is very casual, ども archaic/formal(?). the more archaic the language the more these are used.
• 俺 ら "i group" = us blokes
• そいつ ら "that-guy group" = that bunch
• 本 たち "book group" = (pile of) books
• 子 供 "child group" = children (but modernly also means a single child)
• 違う ね 間抜け 共 が
 (ye're) wrong, ye imbeciles
• てめぇ ら 全員 アンデッド ども の 餌 だ‌
 all (members of) you bastards (will) be (this group of) undeads' food!

で (にて formal/archaic) : locationally/situationally being (= at). origin is に "locationally (in, to)", て "being". じゃ is にてわ / でわ.
• そこ で 待って ろ
 "there locationally wait(ing)!" = wait there!
• 明日、午後 3時 に そこ で 待って ます
 "tomorrow, horse-(hour)-after 3-hour locationally there locationally-being (i'll be) waiting" = tomorrow, at 3 pm, i'll be waiting there (for you).
• はい、その メール が 最後 で
 "correct, that mail (noteworthy!) most-behind situationally-being" = yes, that email/PM being the last (one)
• それ じゃ = それ に て は
 "that-existance locationally-being (is)" = well then!

である (だ, であります, っす, でござる, でございます, ざます) : "locationally/situationally exists". basically used to end sentences. there's limitless variations but the origin is always である (basic form) or でござる (polite form).
• ワナ だ
 "trap situationally-exists" = it's a trap!
• さすが っす ね
 "as-expected exists eh" = well it's just to be expected, huh.

たら : "if, when". like our "if i eat cake i feel sick" = "whenever i eat cake i feel sick". origin is あら form of ある "exists" put as a tail on "past-tense" verbs (including onto itself: あったら; だったら = に て あったら). なら "if (so)" is probably the same tail on な "being".
• 負けたら ごめん ね
 (i'm) sorry if (we) lose, alright? (a battle leader talking about going into battle)
• 何か あったら すぐ に 連絡 し ます‌
 "some/anything if-happen immediate-ly contact (will)-do" = if/when something happens, i'll contact you immediately.
• あんた が 必要 と 判断 したら そう しろ‌
 "if YOU (suppose and) decide it's a need, that-way do (i suppose)" = (we'll) do it if/when you decide it's necessary.

みたい / (見たい) : "(that) looks like", "it seems like". origin: 見る "sees" 痛い "hurts (in my opinion)".
• 冷た すぎて 火傷 する みたい だ‌
 (being) too cold, it seems like (it's) causing a burn = so cold it's burning me
• そう みたい です
 "looks that way exists" = it seems so
• 期間 が 短い と 飛行機 代 もったいない みたい
 looks like a waste of a plane ticket when the (vacation) time period's short = seems like a waste
• セフィロス みたい な 長 剣 造り たい
 "Sephiroth looks like long sword create-want" = (i) want to forge a long sword that looks like Sephiroth's
• 連絡 見て ない メンバー が いる みたい
 looks like there's (guild) members who don't look at the (guild) communication (because they didn't follow orders)

る: short for する; often added to abbreviations to make verbs at will.
• テレ る=テレポート する
 teleports

た (だ): Just like we say "visually impaired, scalloped, lovestruck" (= is still almost blind, still has scallops, still in love) and use past-tense when we mean that the thing still has that status "right now", Japanese sometimes does exactly the same.
• 薄 青い 色 を した 蛙
 a frog having a pale-green colour
• 箱 を 持った まま
 while still holding the box
• 生き 残った の は 我々 3 人 だけ だ‌
 "alive remained situation is us 3 people only exists" = only we 3 have survived.

を : affect(ed, -ing etc)
• ジュース を 飲んだ
 "juice affected drank" = drank juice

から: "after (that)", "from (a place/person/situation etc)"
• 息子 と 遊んで から の 歯 医者 行く ぜ
 "after hanging out/playing with (my) son, (i'll) go to the tooth cure-ist (you guys!)" = hey, after i'm done playing with my son i'm gonna go to the dentist!
• 今 から 君 は 私 たち の 家族 だ‌
 "after now (on) you are my-group's family-clan" = from now on you're a part of my family

よ: "do, did" (emphatic word), as in "i DID do it", "i DO drink tea".
• 飲んだ よ
 i did drink it!
 
 
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